Using CNC to teach Project Management techniques
~James Dunn

One of the most difficult things we do is make a decision. I’ve previously mentioned the Result Managment tool I had developed. I’ve had the opportunity to develop general Project Management tools to meet the needs of students entering an Engineering program.

Computer Numerical Control machining, including laboratories – Part 1

Computer Numerical Control machining, including laboratories – Part 2

Within the links on the above pages is a section with the heading “Project Management”. You can download forms for tracking the development of almost any project, and more. The following is an excerpt.

Project Management

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What is the Soul Conjecture? How does it apply to the Poincare Conjecture? (mathematics)
~James Dunn
Also what is the soul with regards to topology? And what is a codimension?

Best Answer – Chosen by Voters

Inspired and asked by: Jeff A
I shouldn’t be here, my understanding of mathematics is very limited. Anything written hereafter is purely conjecture (pun intended) and is not based in any form on solid mathematic foundation.
—————————

From rudiment understanding of the two problem spaces they do not share the same overall characteristics and the Poincare Conjecture (finite space) must be confined to a subset of conditions present in the Soul Conjecture (infinite space).

Perhaps the relationship between the two conjectures is like describing a fourth dimension from three dimensional space. The Poincare Conjecture identifies the area of interest, while the Soul Conjecture identifies dimensional qualities around that area.

Or perhaps more usefully, the Soul Conjecture relates the confluence of diverse relationships in real space, while the Poincare Conjecture approximates those confluent relationships in a specific area of interest. The tightening loops extracting the conditions of the Soul Space into a space we can perceive.

Another way of looking at Unified Field Theory? Describe all that is, then relate properties locally to define confluent factors that may predict relationships with which we can interact.

_________________________

I’m reaching way out of my understanding of mathematics, but intuitively this is what I perceive as a potential relationship at the very extents of my understanding; which makes my input virtually useless for anything more than potential inspiration.

I hope someone with more of an understanding of mathematics has something more useful to offer.

Craigs List for Cell Phones, with Cell Phone Features
~James Dunn

Craigs List is a free advertising service for the public. You can post whatever you want to sell and buy virtually anything you want. Even in your local neighborhood.

http://www.craigslist.org/about/sites.html

Cell phones can be utilized to provide young people with business opportunities. Craigs List style listings can be generated on cell phones with a search option based upon cell phone GPS location.

So people that want their car washed, grass cut, laundry done, babysitting, shovel snow, garden tended, … can list their needs on the cell phone program and young people can match up to them based upon how close they live to the GPS location. For example a search radius of one mile allows a young person to choose work to do up to one mile from their current GPS location.

Also, many other business opportuities for young people can be generated through cell phone enterprise. For instance developing parties, sporting events, study groups, … it might be nice to have a couple of boats available at a skiing party, but their current circle of friends only has one.

Creating transportation resources so young people can get around without a car:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=239

……..

Creating a Compass for Cell Phones
~James Dunn

Inspired by eFontana

.

[Google Android is an open architecture software that allows home grown software developers to create applications for cell phones. Anyone (you, me, anyone) can create applications to do whatever your imagination allows.

http://www.googleandroid.com/

A software developer asked about having a digital compass chip included in cell phones for developers to use in their applications. The following was my input to provide them with a workable solution that doesn’t require cooperation with manufacturers to achieve his goals.]

.

A MEMS chip can be a collection of sensors (temperature, accelerometer (x,y,z), atmospheric pressure, Hall effect sensor (compass), …) all built into the same chip. In mass production the chip could be relatively inexpensive.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=/iel5/20/35967/01704675.pdf?i….

However, an Android shortcut would be to use the GPS sensor and your relative direction of travel to produce a compass bearing over 100 feet of uniform travel. For each model of cell phone the antenna sensitivity changes as you rotate the cell phone about a point. This could potentially be tied in with relative position movement to estimate a compass bearing about a point.

But as I said, the lookup table would be different for each model of cell phone (i.e. the user would have to complete a calibration mode and then spin themselves 360 degrees around where they are standing; this would need to be done for each location to load the data sensativity into a lookup table).

This type of engineering where you take two sensors with low resolution to combine their results to provide greater resolution is called “Sensor Fusion”.

Basically a cell phone antenna signal does NOT have the same signal profile when you rotate left versus rotate right. This can be capitalized upon to determine the relative bearing of which the compass is facing. Coupled with the cell phone GPS the relative bearing can be referenced to the true bearing. A lookup table can provide a correction factor and thereby produce Magnetic Bearing; vis vi Compass.

.

By using the variable signal profile, it is useful for when a dedicated compass sensor is not available in the cell phone. The variability due to a persons body, phone orientation, obstructions, transponder location relative to cell phone, … all have to be taken into consideration to make a useful product.

One potentially useful scenario might be:

Instructions for using compass.

“Walk in a straight line in the direction the top of the cell phone is pointing; choose a target to walk toward and hold the cell phone flat like you would any mechanical compass. The cell phone will beep when you arrive at the calibration position.”

“After hearing the beep, rotate about your position smoothly and slowly (4 seconds, 1 second and 1 beep for each 90 degrees), until you return to face your starting position. The display will automatically display the compass bearing around this position.”

“If you move more than 15 feet from this position, the compass bearing will be removed from the display until Calibration is done for a new position. This prevents the user from using old data.”

This would be done every time a person wanted a compass bearing.

At this one position, they could rotate back and forth and get compass bearing information. When the GPS sensed any new position, the Compass would replace the compass readout with “Perform Calibration”.

They would have to repeat calibration every time they wanted a compass bearing unless higher level algorithms are running in the background while the user is walking. Updating lookup table(s) with information to derive similar data from moment to moment.

Again, this scenario is only useful if a compass sensor is not available in the cell phone. Which is almost all cell phones made today.

But I agree, if a compound MEMS chip (with Mag sensor) were incorporated in cell phones then this sensor fusion option would be unnecessary.

Table of Contents – a method of conserving bandwidth usage
~James Dunn

http://jamesbdunn.multiply.com/journal/item/1/Table_of_Contents

Multiply support has been responsive to issues members have brought up. Yahoo has been unresponsive, so I will again request a simple tool for users to organize their blog pages; but this time from Multiply.

Please include a “Table of Contents” module with a link labeled “Table of Contents” located at the top of every blog page.

Member inspiration occurs randomly with time. Therefore blog entries are random both in content and type. The random nature of reading blog pages is annoying, and requires a great deal of Multiply available bandwidth.

A simple blog tool that would automatically grab the blog page title and associate that pages’ URL

[a href=”http://jamesbdunn.multiply.com/links/item/2″%5DTable of Contents[/a]

and open the Table of Contents to let the member drop that linked text under a member configurable heading is desparately needed. See

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=207

for an example.

The member would be allowed to copy and paste any linked text to more than one location; such as Activities and Location.
Table of Contents

Family Stuff

* Whatever

Things to Do

* City
o Phoenix
+ Activities (a title composed by Member)
# Celebrations (a title composed by Member)
* New Years (a link to Member blog page)
* Fourth of July (a link to Member blog page)
# Nightclubs
# Restaurants
o Tulsa
+ Activities (a title composed by Member)
# Celebrations (a title composed by Member)
* New Years (a link to a Member blog page)
* Fourth of July (a link to a Member blog page)
# Nightclubs
# Restaurants

Another natural feature is that the linked text is de-highlighted when guests click on that particular linked text (cookie associated with links). So each guest will independently know what pages they have already reviewed (conserving available Multiply bandwidth).

This is easily scripted and provides a much needed tool in the blogging community. Web designers can use any number of methods to implement this tool. The best implementation being a module that allows drag and drop utility.

This is so simple, I can’t believe it isn’t commonly available. But a Table of Contents tool is desparately needed in the blogging community.

Obviously “Table of Contents” features can always be added (ask me and I’ll provide lots of options), but having a simple tool to begin with is vital for any Journal, especially one that is is informational, and 300 or more pages. Imagine having to cruise through blog pages looking for interesting content from a dial-up connection! Scanning links is much more efficient and uses far less bandwidth.

A “Table of Contents” allows Multiply to conserve its’ overall bandwidth usage, and provides Members with an industry unique tool.

James Dunn

=======

The above was sent to Multiply.com Nov 5, 2007 at 4:45 am, however, I had sent Yahoo a request for a Table of Contents tool earlier this year (on file) and it was documented in my 360 Tips and Tricks blog page.

Insulated Metal Roofing – Helping Reduce Global Warming
copyright © 2007
by James Dunn

All information is to be considered partial and experimental.

The roofs of most homes are usually a dark color that during the Summer, absorbs enough solar energy that it makes the attics quite hot; this reduces the temperature of the exposed roofing materials. A blanket of insulation between the attic and living spaces provides somewhat reduced costs for heating and air conditioning. The greater the insulating “R” factor, the greater the utility cost savings.

The cost savings of blanket or blown-in insulation in the attic is somewhat reduced by “insulation bypass”; these are conductive and convective thermal channels that get around and through insulating barriers: concrete supports, wood structures, metal reinforcements and brackets, wiring, columns of air-flow in the walls, condensation, …

However, from a Global Warming point of view, most rooftops are designed to amplify the effect of global warming.

* Solar energy is converted into low frequency infrared energy, re-radiated out into the local environment, and transmitted into convective heat in the attics; which is pumped out of the vents of attics into the surrounding environment; either through passive air-flow or by forced ventilation.
o These low infrared energy levels are not as easily re-radiated out into space, less so than the higher energy levels of infrared from the primary heated surfaces of the roof, had the roofing material not been allowed to cool as much.
o The primary surfaces have reduced temperatures from the heat conducting into the attic and therefore re-transmits infrared energy at a lower wavelength; providing greater heating of the local environment.

Sheet metal roofing has become a popular and robust method of roofing modern homes. As such, sheet metal roofing coupled with an insulating board, also provides a means of helping to suppress global warming in four ways:

1. Re-radiating all solar energy wavelengths back out into space, including infrared; especially if white.
2. Providing improved thermal insulation in rooftops.
3. Coupled with thermally controlled attic vents, optimizing beneficial thermal gradients.
4. Reducing the energy consumed via utility companies (reducing global warming trends).

When replacing your present roof, remove the shingles down to your plywood roof sheeting. Lay and secure a low-compressive insulating barrier sheeting onto the roof (extruded polystyrene is about R-9 per inch). Secure the metal roofing materials to this insulating barrier sheeting. An intermediate paneling or 1/4″ plywood sheeting may be necessary for some applications either for bonding adhesive compatibilities, or for controlling thermal gradients. If possible, use an adhesive system instead of screws or nails to prevent the heat from being transmitted into the attic through the metal of screws and nails.

Care should be taken in considering thermal expansion of the metal materials and providing the movement necessary to prevent buckling of the roofing materials. The raised ridges often provide the needed expansion space and spacing in the lateral dimension, but the vertical dimension is often neglected and crackling noises can be heard during times of expansion/contraction extremes. Slip joints are an often used construction technique. The adhesive must provide both flexibility and adhesion at higher than normal temperatures.

Make sure the metal roofing manufacturer approves of your method of providing an insulating barrier between the roof and their metal sheeting; so you don’t violate a warranty, and you do not have a premature roofing failure. The materials and construction techniques should be simple, but they should also be engineered and not just flippantly tried on ones own incentive.

This will maximize the metal temperatures of the roofing material, while helping to minimize the energy transmitted into the home. The volume of heat needing to be removed from the attic is significantly reduced. The much higher roofing metal temperature more readily re-transmits solar energy back out into space, and therefore helps to reduce global warming. Lighter colors reflect more energy, but even if you choose darker colors for aesthetic reasons, the energy re-transmitted back into space will be much higher than if not using the insulation barrier, or if using other roofing materials like tile, shingles, or tar/gravel.

Roofing materials are commonly aluminum and have very low heat capacity and will NOT store energy for any appreciable time. In only a few minutes under cloud cover, the metal will be at ambient temperatures.

Installing attic forced ventilation and shutters coupled with a differential thermostat can significantly contribute to utility savings.

If you use a Swamp Cooler (used in low humidity climates instead of refrigerated air conditioning; lower cost to run), you can vent your outlet air partly through your attic, as well as out partially opened windows, to significantly improve the cooling efficiency of your swamp cooler. Hot air rises, so more of the interior hot air will exhaust through the attic. While the attic is significantly warmer than any of the air inside the living spaces. Thus both cooling the interior more, and cooling the attic as well. Swamp Coolers run continuously at a small fraction of the cost as refrigerated air conditioning. Use a ceiling vent that has an automatic damper (cheap) so that you don’t lose heat through the vent in the winter months.

The differential thermostat is made by comparing the outside ambient temperature with the temperature of the attic. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) can be purchased with thermocouple inputs for less than $200. Additionally, the PLC can be used for a hundred other uses like controlling your Solar Collector system, building security, exterior lighting controls, sprinkler system control, … A fan with shutters is at one end of the house, with motorized shutters at the other end of the house. The forced air circulating fan and shutters are controlled by these temperature sensors:

Outside Temp
Sensor

Attic Temp greater than Outside Temp

Interior Temp greater than Attic Temp

Fan & Motorized Shutter

> 10° F

Low Speed

>75° F

> 5° F

Low Speed

>75° F

> 10° F

High Speed

* The attic fan runs whenever the attic is significantly (> 10° F) cooler than the interior of the house. Humidity of the house will collect (dew point) in the attic whenever the temperature of the attic is significantly less than that of the house interior. This can reduce the insulating properties of the insulation and actual water can collect to damage building materials (ever notice water spots on people’s ceilings?).
* Whenever the Outside air Temperature is greater than 75° F “AND” the Attic Temperature is greater than the Outside air Temperature by 5° F, the shutters will open and the Attic Fan will run at low speed. This reduces the temperature gradient between the attic space and the living spaces, so as to conserve the need for air conditioning.
* Whenever the Outside air Temperature is greater than 75° F “AND” the Attic Temperature is greater than the Outside air Temperature by 10° F, the shutters will open and the Attic Fan will run at high speed. The cost of running a ventillation fan is far lower than running refrigerated air conditioning.

A simple air-flow switch-type sensor can be used to indicate when the system is operating as expected.

* I can provide the diagnostic electrical/electronic information if you are interested in automating diagnostics and trouble-shooting messages.

By minimizing the temperature difference between the attic and the inside living spaces during the Summer, the “insulation bypass” is minimized. The cooling load is minimized and utility usage similarly minimized.

If you have the resources, you can provide a number of upgrades to reduce heat transfer through your windows:

* extend the overhang of the roof so that the windows of the house reside in the roof overhang shadow for most of the day
* angle windows to prevent sunlight from entering directly, except during Winter months
* apply window glazings to reflect light at lower critical angles
* install infrared blocking windows
* install shutters that can be closed from inside the building
* grow small-limb shade trees to help shade the house
* install insulated draperies
* install infrared blocking polycarbonate windows
* install multi-layer window assemblies (thermo-pane windows)

The outlined method above can be expected to pay for itself in reduced utility costs; while helping to reduce Global Warming, which is priceless.

A Self-Funding method to “Reverse” Global Warming
~James Dunn

A Self-Funding method for Weather Control,
while providing Abundant Clean Energy to replace ALL fossil fuels

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Without a clean interactive “tool” for control of global temperatures, we are relying upon the unstable nature of our environment to continue to mend itself, regardless of our abusive actions. In addition to our own actions, history has shown that nature often has global extinction events. There are many natural generators of greenhouse gases.
If the methane permafrost melts, billions of people may die from reduced global agricultural harvests, aggravated by unstable plant pathogens caused from reduced plant and animal diversity. Currently over 6 million people die of starvation annually; this number will only increase. Those people in positions of influence who do not act now to save those peoples’ lives, are directly responsible for their deaths.
Oil Company Revenues – A necessary transition
Oil is a fixed commodity. The revenue generated by oil can be extended from a 100 year supply to a 1,000 year (or more) supply; if it is used to make products instead of fuel. Of course with reduced production, the price per barrel would increase, but delivery costs are reduced because supertanker ships need not be built. So the cost of plastics, antifreeze, and lubricants would increase due to the restricted supply. Cost per barrel of oil being a balance between shipping cost savings and supply/demand of the products produced using fossil fuel. Regardless, this seems an attractive trade-off for a green economy. Especially when the cost of electric utilities plummet and the cost of hydrogen correspondingly plummets.
As for comparative costs:

* How much does it cost to build AND maintain a supertanker?
* How much does it cost to continually develop new oil resources?
* How much does bad press cost?

Additionally, by having the Oil Companies fund a Global Energy System, the free and multimillion year supply of solar energy provides incomes that can not be generated by fossil fuels. For instance, even with oil at $50 a barrel, it was not economically feasible to develop the Northern parts of Canada, the Sahara, or event the US Southwest. The low energy density of oil coupled with shipping costs has made living in remote locations impractical.
Because of the broadly distributed nature of space-based solar collectors, the cost of fuel anyplace in the world is virtually the same. New technology based populations can be developed in the most remote places on Earth. The Earth can easily support 100 billion people if there is sufficient energy resources. So Oil Companies would be selling power to 100 billion people, instead of the current 6.7 billion people. There are other significant sources of related revenue as well.
That’s an estimated increase of 15 times the current energy usage; 17 times the current net revenues (more energy users, higher cost per barrel of oil, lower oil infrastructure costs, …).
Ecologically Sound Solution

The problems with most solutions proposed for controlling Global Warming are:

* the expense and the requirement for on-going funding
* high risk of damage to the environment
* ineffective nature of proposal
* narrow focus of proposal, not allowing for collateral and beneficial enterprise to develop
* foreseeable health hazards
* inability to attain multilateral support of all nations

We must initiate a comprehensive process that not only addresses the symptoms of Global Warming, but also addresses the core causes; including those causes that are “naturally” produced.
Space-based Solar Concentration Facilities

Establish a space based solar energy collection and conversion system to generate an excess of abundant clean energy for the world. Real Estate is free in space and is unencumbered by political boundaries. This system would minimize (if not eliminate) the need for fossil fuels by using solar energy to generate cheap hydrogen to power fuel cells and engines. Petroleum would be produced for plastics and other products, extending petroleum industry survival for several hundred years. Providing cheap electrical energy to the world allows for hydrogen and water to be extracted locally anywhere on the planet:
A current self-contained system in use to produce electricity from the Sun:
http://www.stirlingenergy.com/

Increasing outputs through solar concentrators:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=5
Building a Weather Control System:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=81

Method for controlling mirror rotation:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=68

Collateral Business Developments
Use the sale of power to fund the Space Elevator, thus reducing the cost of shipping and transportation to/from orbit to 10% of current costs; thus making access to space available to virtually anyone. A side benefit will be the many start-up industries that capitalize on the mass production of carbon nanotubes.

Vehicle strengths can increase hundreds of times over present vehicles while weighing significantly less. Vehicles can potentially impact at up to 20 mph without any significant damage. Mountain climbing ropes can be reduced in size to the size of a string and be stronger than present ropes; allowing for lighter pack loads and longer ropes. A 1200 pound Harley Davidson motorcycle could be made to weigh less than 200 pounds; while being considerably stronger and more powerful. Commercial airliners could have ballistic parachutes which automatically deploy to save the lives of passengers. Buildings can be produced which can withstand the strongest of earthquakes. Skyscrapers a thousand stories tall. Diamond cable saws capable of cutting up asteroids for mining. Earth boring machine cutting heads that are much stronger, more efficient, lighter, and more versatile. Allowing for subterranean habitat development; here on Earth, the Moon, Mars, large asteroids, and other planets and their moons. A woven sheet of nanotubes and bonding agent would line the caverns to provide air tight living spaces. Orbiting and transiting space habitat structures large enough to hold thousands of inhabitants including their systems for being self-sufficient. Computer and cell phone cases that are virtually indestructible; yet lighter than anything we currently have:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=4

Develop space-based industry to further technological developments and provide greater employment through economic growth:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=6

Create a low-cost fuel free orbiting service vehicle to provide for orbiting commercial laboratories, service vehicles for orbiting instrumentation and equipment, habitats, tow vehicles, Earth to Moon transports, repair platforms, …

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=194

Systematically cleanup orbiting space debris and force nations to be accountable for contributing to space debris:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=67

Building a global Weather Control System
Establish a global Weather Control System (WCS) to Reverse and provide active control over Global Warming and rebuild the glaciers, ensure the methane permafrost remains intact, control the ash laden winds in the vicinity of erupting volcanoes, manage predictable rainfall for agriculture, control wind direction and rainfall for forest fires, eliminate severe weather and the resulting damage, promote responsible ecological controls, …

The world revenue spent and lost outside of intent because of weather phenomena approaches 1 Trillion dollars annually. The total weather control system is a fraction of this cost and can be funded through the sale of power and fractional royalties from space based industry developments.

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=2

Looking to the Future
Through a series of technological processes we can quickly transition from a species dependent upon our natural environment, to a species that becomes a responsible part of our environment, and this system provides the means to support the ever growing human populations. While taking an active part in preserving our ecology and ensuring our grandchildren will experience the richly diverse life we presently enjoy; and perhaps a world with greater diversity and wonders not yet imagined.

In 1776 there were less than 700 million people worldwide. The second of two people living to be 100 years old would have seen 1976 and a population of over 3,000 million (3 billion) people; a growth of 4.3 times as many people in 2 peoples lifetimes. Presently, there are over 6.7 billion people; the world population has doubled in less than 30 years. We can fully expect there to be at least 35 billion people by 2076. Medicine and food supply technologies improve, people naturally live longer, what will life be like unless we provide a habitat, interesting employment, and business opportunities?

Currently, China uses people with shovels and rakes to process their sewage, because labor is so cheap. What will our grandchild’s life be like if we do not push our horizons above that of the Earth?

Within just 50 years, it is expected that between 1/3 and 1/2 of all known species of plants and animals will verge upon extinction due to salt water encroachment of coastal wetlands. How do we plan to help maintain our ecological diversity to provide natural food chain stability? Already, corn and potato crops are documented to be at risk worldwide.
Over 6 million people currently starve annually; it can be shown that almost 30 million people will starve annually by 2076 unless we act diligently in the present.

We must have a comprehensive system that provides for the needs of our small world. Allowing us to have more, not less. Allowing our population to grow; responsibly.

Initiate a comprehensive self-funded system to actively “Reverse” Global Warming, provide for a diverse ecology, provide for economic growth, provide abundant clean power, control extreme weather, and provide for our ever growing world population.
To find & email your specific Congressmen and Senators:

* Your State’s Congressmen
* Your States’ Senators

To email Congressman all across the United States:

*
http://www.conservativeusa.org/mega-cong.htm

To talk directly with the staff of your representatives:

*
(202) 225-3121 for the House
*
(202) 224-3121 for the Senate

_________________________________________________________
Global Warming can be controlled by promoting small temperature changes
and Abundant Clean Energy can be harvested at the same time…
A practical system to “Reverse” Global Warming needs your support:

* http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Ethically Eliminate ALL Political Corruption:

* http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=57

Add this information to your email ‘signature’
_________________________________________________________
Other related websites:
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Weather_control
http://technorati.com

WCS Mirror used as Low-Cost Orbiting Service Vehicle
~James Dunn

The Weather Control System (WCS) mirrors have the strong potential of sailing controllable orbiting trajectories around the Earth. This makes them useful as low cost robotic service vehicles.

Many satellite orbits degrade over time. Slipping outward into space, falling back to Earth, losing their geosynchronous position, … By using the controllable sailing feature of the WCS mirrors, satellites can be vectored back into their desired orbiting trajectory and therefore extend their useful lifetime.

For a square mirror 3,000 feet on a side, the solar wind would impart about 7.8 Newtons of force, or about 1.7 pounds of force. Doesn’t seem like much does it. But let’s look a little closer. Assume the mirror has a mass of 500 kilograms (1102 pounds), after 24 hours of continuous exposure to the light from the Sun, that is a difference in speed of over 3,000 miles per hour.

This is similar to standing on a dock next to a large boat. The boat might weigh 50 tons. But by applying a continuous force with your hands, you can move the boat around.

So on each trip around the Earth, if the mirror turns sideways to slip through the solar wind when traveling towards the Sun, and the mirror fully catches the solar wind when traveling away from the Sun, the mirror can continue to accelerate to greater and greater speeds. Or conversely, to slower and slower speeds. Tiping the sail related to the direction of the solar wind would cause side forces that would allow the mirror to change the direction it is traveling.

When constructed, the mirror will be in a stationary orbit; most likely in geosynchronous orbit if built in the vacinity of a Space Elevator.

The sailing feature of the WCS mirror has the potential of providing tow services for other mirrors in need of repair, deploying satellites from an orbiting work platform, and becoming a part of a manned platform that also happens to help control Earths weather.

However, any additional mass added to a mirror structure (laboratory) will reduce the acceleration available for the same size of mirror.

The sailing feature would allow a space-based laboratory at it’s center to circumnavigate the Earth along a desired trajectory, harvest the solar energy needed for its work, and thus providing the laboratory with long term fuel-less propulsion.

These orbiting laboratories could provide:

* on-going repair support for the WCS mirrors
* long term space-based factory platforms
* the ability to cost effectively harvest materials from asteroids and comets
* each platform could have emergency supplies to help reduce risk factors in a community of enterprise based platforms
* space colonies become practical
o many provide supply and transport services
o a couple of space factories produce solar cells
o a couple refine raw materials
o a couple provide equipment to recycle oxygen
o many produce food
o some produce medical supplies
o some provide medical services
o …

In 1776 the total world population was less than 700 million people. In two consecutive 100 year lifetimes the population has increased to over 3 Billion people. The population has grown by about 4.3 times. At this rate of growth, your baby being born today will be part of a world population of over 10 Billion people near the end of its life of 100 years. Global Warming will have changed everything we understand as being a natural resource.

We must act diligently in the present to ensure the survival of our children in the future.

We will have spent much more money on the War in Iraq ($1 Trillion dollars projected) as it would have cost to build the entire Weather Control System and Global Energy System. Only a fraction of this money is needed to build the Space Elevator and the first phase of the weather control and global energy systems; at which point the WCS and GES become self funding by selling power back to the World Community. A fraction of the money spent on the war with Iraq could have saved the world from Global Warming, and saved $500 Billion dollars a year in weather related destruction and lost revenue.

What jobs are your children going to have as part of a 10 billion person population? In China, people are using rakes and shovels to process sewage, because labor is so cheap.

Regulation of a Weather Control System & Global Energy System
~James Dunn

If your grandparents lived to be 100 years old and they died today, they would have seen the majority of all pollution created, the human population increase by 2 billion people, more animal and plant extinctions than in the previous 2 million years, most of what technology has had to offer, and experienced life before technology as we know it.

Unless something is done, and done in the next few years, within your grandchildren’s lifetime, humanity may become largely extinct.

Think this is an exageration? There is an abundant amount of information to support this potential. As diversity diminishes, so does the stabilizing effects. Imagine corn, wheat, and potatos getting a plant virus or genetic disease that wipes out those crops, what will you do to feed 3 billion peoples? Corn and potatos are already at risk!

Think into the future; where active control of the weather is a reality.

If there is a practical method of controlling the weather so that Global Warming can be reversed, is it a crime for any governing body on Earth to abstain from helping to establish a Weather Control System (WCS)? Would they be liable for any damages, injuries, and deaths incurred because of negligently failing to provide remedy?

Weather Control System (WCS)

Additionally, the WCS can provide abundant clean power, more than what the world currently consumes; eliminating the majority of all human produced greenhouse gases.

WCS provides Solar Power to power the World

How would we regulate the power distribution and cost of power since it would be virtually a monopoly?

Obviously, we need to be careful about abusing such a system. But it is a viable tool for helping to ensure our survival; especially if nothing else works. One third to one half of all known land base species of plants and animals are expected to tend toward extinction within the next 50 years! You don’t have much time to make a difference!

What laws would have to be put into place to ensure the ethical use of a Weather Control System, and a Global Energy System?

Reducing Vehicle Drag by Actively Promoting Laminar Airflow
~James Dunn

One of the ways to provide Green technologies is to provide means for saving and conserving energy. One of the reasons why we don’t have cars that get over 100 miles per gallon is that the air must be pushed out of the way as a vehicle moves. The heat produced translates to more fuel used. Turbulent or Burbling air flow tosses air violently about causing the creation of significant heat. Laminar air flow minimizes the disturbance of air so that friction is minimized.

Explanation of Laminar and Burbling (turbulent) Air Flow

Cars typically have areas of drag that are necessary for the operation of a vehicle, like the radiator. Some air must flow through the radiator to cool the engine. This results in air flow burbling that contributes to total vehicle drag.

Vehicles also have body part transitions that cause burbling of air passing across the transitions.

Potentially in these areas, the control of air flow can help to provide consistent laminar air flow over the body of the vehicle. Something like blowing into a flute, as your finger covers the hole you hear a change in pitch quality. The back pressure can help control the boundary layer and contribute to lower drag of the vehicle under dynamically changing environmental conditions.

Areas where this boundary layer might be beneficially controlled would be the front bumper/grill to hood interface, hood/windshield interface, wheel wells, roof to back window interface, back window to trunk lid interface, trunk lid to bumper interface.

Instead of a front grille, NASA vents (V shaped vent port that allows air to pass through without significantly disturbing laminar air flow) would pull air in to cool the radiator; thereby establishing laminar air flow across the body. For instance, a diesel truck might have the radiator lay back at 45 degrees and have NASA vents to promote laminar air flow and protect the radiator from debris. The windshield could lay back and flow smoothly over and around the cab.

The transition between each surface element could monitor air pressure and/or other physical variable and operate a vent or air pump/jets to promote a stable layer of air density for a given set of environmental conditions (humidity, temp, air pressure, …). At aerodynamic surface transitions the pressure is greater, or less than, the average surface pressure and the resulting airflow could provide spin of a turbine to produce a very small amount of electrical power; or running of the turbine could cause aerodynamic qualities to allow the vehicle to slip through the air with less power. A computer would determine the mode of most efficient energy usage.

Care must be taken to ensure the vehicle body does not become a flying wing and loft the vehicle off of the roadway. Ground effect can be used in conjunction with low pressure zones to help suck the vehicle down onto the roadway.

Dynamic skirting could conceivably maintain a fixed distance from the roadway to create a large low-pressure zone under the vehicle to increase vehicle stability; controllably sucking the vehicle to the roadway.

The complexity of such a system would require an aerodynamics engineer to determine the configuration of the body, NASA vents, and turbine units needed to promote laminar flow. NASA vents could be used where air intake is needed. Surface bumps could be used to break up large burble vortex into small burble so that the air can transition more quickly back into laminar air flow. Small holes with an air supply in the surface can lead transitions to virtually shape aerodynamic surfaces to promote smooth transitions.

The turbine/laminar flow configuration could reduce vehicle total drag and potentially produce a small amount of power in burble areas of air flow.

However, if the extra weight of vectoring vents and ducts is excessive, the additional weight and impeding structures under the hood, would contribute to making this solution impractical. Costly, cumbersome, and power consuming instead of power saving.

However, a vehicle traveling 150 mph straight and level that has 95% of its’ surface in laminar air flow can travel at the same speed with considerably less horsepower as a vehicle with 50% of its’ surface in laminar air flow; even if the vehicle weighs an extra 200 pounds. This is proven in aircraft like the Rutan Varieze.

Does 150 mph seem fast for driving? With the future of autopilot for automobiles this is a realistic expectation. How fast could you safely drive if you could anticipate every obstacle long before arriving at the obstacle? This is the future of autopilot technology. Because the location of everything is known and controlled, the cruising speeds of vehicles can substantially be increased.

Improvised Explosive Device (IED) – Remote Destruction
~ James Dunn

IED’s are used by militants and terrorists to kill people and destroy vehicles. Typically they are positioned adjacent to a roadway and either detonated by proximity sensor and/or triggered by remote control. They can be manufactured and triggered by any number of different methods.

But the ones used in Iraq usually use electrical and/or electronic components to detonate the explosives.

So, how to disrupt the electrical and/or electronic components? From a safe distance!

A Gyrotron is something similar to your microwave in the kitchen; it takes in electricity and emits microwaves. However, commercially available gyrotrons easily produce microwaves at power densities greater than 50 kilowatts per unit, instead of the 1 kilowatt per kitchen microwave. Gyrotrons are available in the tens of megawatts.

http://www.psfc.mit.edu/wab/pdfs/2005/EMChoi_Jphy.pdf

Couple a collimator with a gyrotron and you create a MASER. Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation. Microwaves behave similarly as Lasers; almost all of the propagating energy follows a narrow diameter beam. Thus concentrating the +50 kW on a small area or volume.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maser

Ever hear of what happens when metal is put into a microwave. Metal can act like an antenna and the microwave energy excites the electrons in the metal to flow back and forth in the metal, exciting a charge; lightning like phenomena and intense heating of the metal.

In a 1 kilowatt kitchen microwave, a wire tie becomes red hot in a small fraction of a second. Think of the volume of energy in the microwave being focused just on the wire tie; many hundreds of times more energy focused on the wire tie.

I propose that if a substantial portion of the microwave energy of a 100 kilowatt gyrotron is confined to a square centimeter, that the time duration needed to destroy small metal conductors would be very small.

I understand that a collimator reduces the effective power of a maser by some margin.

The laser like microwave could then be directed at any suspect device from a safe distance and disrupt and/or detonate the IED. Electronic packages neutralized and wires fused.

Robotic aerial vehicles could pace and lead convoys/trains to scan suspect targets adjacent to roadways and disrupt any electrical pathways.

An infrared sensor could automatically search the target area and prevent accidental injury of people and animals.

Building 12V Electric Pre-Heaters from Trash – Alternative Fuel Systems
~James Dunn

Disclaimer:

Do NOT attempt to act upon or disseminate any portion of the following unless you read the full content of the Disclaimer linked herein: Click Here

Building 12V Electric Pre-Heaters from Trash – Alternative Fuel Systems

Safety Precautions (Partial List): The materials selected and procedures cited by the individual experimenter may contain asbestos, dangerous gases, explosive conditions, electric shock potentials, fire hazards, and other health hazards and hazards to equipment and structures not foreseen, …

Preface

Often, people experimenting with various ideas need a custom heat source for producing a desired effect. Standard heaters are often not commercially available in the configuration or voltages that are desireable for a particular setup. For instance, 12 VDC tubing heaters to pre-heat alternative fuels before combustion are expensive; when you can find them. Custom heaters can cost thousands of dollars for initial manufacturing setup. To reduce the initial research costs, custom heaters can be built from trash.

These heaters are especially useful for heating tubing, diesel fuel lines, etc. Again, assume worst case scenarios when engineering your heater.

Where to get your experimental parts

A heater can be easily built from old electric stove burners; even the ones no longer working. They cost about $30 a piece to purchase new, but you can go to any apartment complex and ask their maintenance supervisor to save you a couple of “stove eyes” or “oven burner elements” when they have to be replaced. Even the ones “burned out” can be made into useful heaters. Many maintenance people will do this happily if you tell them why you need the old burners. I find the oven elements are easier to work with.

If they have a stove they are throwing out, take the Oven Temperature Controller. The mechanical type has a bulb and capillary tube that is especially useful for controlling the temperature of tubing and is adjustable from 200F up to 550F.

Construction of heater element

Because the outside tube is isolated from the actual heating element, you can clamp these heaters directly to tubing or whatever else you are wanting to heat.

The elements are composed of a thin nichrome wire passing through a electrically insulative material,and clad with a stainless steel tube. The white electrically insulative material may be asbestos, though I do not know for sure. Do not let any of the dust get in your ears, eyes, nose, mouth, or other orifice and wash off any on your skin immediately.

As such, the outer body is in no way part of the electric circuit, it is only a durable surface through which heat is conducted. Unless of course through your experimentation you accidentally let the nichrome wire touch the stainless steel tube, then you have a potential shock and or equipment damage hazard.

The construction of these heating elements allows them to be bent “relatively” easily. Care should be taken to avoid kinking the tube when bending. Wrapping the tube around a pipe and pulling while bending helps. If it kinks, don’t use it. The kink may cause the electrified nichrome wire to touch the outer stainless steel casing and provide the potential for electric shock and/or equipment damage.

Working with heater elements

Check to see what voltage the heater operates at; most are 220 VAC in the United States.

When you hook up a working burner directly to 220 VAC, it will glow bright red. I’m guessing somewhere around 1000 Farenheit or hotter. If you need something that hot, then simply bend the element into the shape you need making large sweeping bends. Keep the electric terminal ends out into an area that will be no hotter than a few hundred degrees or your terminal ends will not survive long.

If you need a heater at a lower voltage and for safety you want to limit the maximum temperature achieved by the heater, then you can either simply hook heater elements in series with spade connectors to make them effectively longer (heat fuel line from the fuel tank all the way to the fuel injection pump).

If you want a 12 VDC heater that gets up to 250F when the vehicle is idling for instance, you can shorten the heating element and put spade connectors on them to make them operate at temperatures up to the normal operating temperatures for those heaters.

Special Note for those wanting to use this to pre-heat fuel lines. The temperature of a heater on a fuel line will vary significantly based upon the speed the vehicle is running. You might consider mounting the Oven Temperature Controller I mentioned earlier in a weather proof box near the battery to provide active temperature control of your fuel line.

No NOT use aluminum spade terminals; they will become loose and cause the related loose connection problems.

If you need lower temperatures or precise control over temperature, you can use a standard temperature controller. It will modulate the electric power to maintain a specific temperature range near the controllers temperature probe.

You can also use 12 VDC, 24 VDC, or 120 VAC instead of 220 VAC to run the heating elements at lower temperatures in conjunction with a temperature controller.

Or, if you do not want to purchase a temperature controller (>$100), then you can experimentally shorten or lengthen the heating element to get the steady state temperature you want to maintain in the system you are working on.

If you opt for a temperature controller, you can use a hotter heater. This will also provide a margin for operation accuracy in diverse operating situations (ambient temperature drift, differing flow rates, differing compounds, …). There are small Temperature Cutout buttons you can purchase from heating and supply vendors that can provide rough control at a low cost ($15) or if you choose to provided added safety margin as a cutout and/or alarm conditions.

Remember, when designing, remember to anticipate the worst case conditions. For an alternative fuel vehicle it might be: Heater on, car not running, very hot summer day in the direct sunlight, no wind, low humidity. Will the fuel in the fuel line that is being preheated get hot enough to cause problems? Heater on, car running down the road just after starting at 80 mph, freezing cold winter day, 25 mph head wind, relatively high humidity. Will the fuel in the fuel line that is being preheated get hot enough to run the vehicle as expected?

Realize, that in a perfectly insulated box, a heating element of any wattage will heat up and destroy itself. Running a current through an electric wire without any avenue for heat loss will melt the nichrome wire! Heaters rely upon ambient losses to protect themselves. If you are building a project and the heater is in a box without a temperature controller, put a damper on your experimental system to control the temperature.

You can lengthen or shorten the heating element by trial and error to get your desired heating power. Longer heater or lower voltage, lower temperature. If you need more heating capacity at lower temperatures, hook heating elements in parallel and make sure you have good contact with that which you are heating (tubing, heat exchanger, fins, …); a small air gap reduces heat conduction significantly.

Procedure for putting a spade connector on a shortened stove heating element

  • Put on a respirator suitable for working with asbestos, rubber gloves, and eye protection.
  • You simply cut the outer tubing with a tubing cutter.
    • Only cut the minimum necessary to sever the tubing.
    • Do not disturb the nichrome wire in the center.
  • Use a pair of side cutters (dikes) to cut through the nichrome wire and sever the tubing into two parts.
  • Mount the heater in a vise so the tube sticks straight up.
    • Use a hacksaw and cut a one inch slot in the center between the nichrome wire and the edge of the tubing; one inch along the length of the tubing from the end.
    • Fold the smaller flap of tubing back slightly so you can work.
    • Clean out the asbestos so that the spade connector crimp will have room in the tubing after it is crimped onto the nichrome wire.
  • Use a pair of needle nose pliars to pull the end of the nichrome wire out about 1/2 inch.
    • Take a bare zinc clad steel spade connector (no plastic insulation) and crimp it onto the nichrome wire.
  • Slide the neck of the spade connector gently back into the tube.
    • Position the spade connector so it wants to sit in position without having to hold it.
  • Mix up a small amount of High Temperature epoxy.
    • You can buy 500F 5-minute Epoxy from Wal-Mart for about $4
  • Coat the inside of the tube with epoxy.
  • Lay the spade connector within the epoxy so the spade connector des not touch the metal tube
    • axially so the nichrome wire lays straight
    • DO NOT put epoxy directly on the Nichrome wire.
      • this may cause a hot spot and shorten heater life
      • this may cause heating of the epoxy in excess of 500F
  • Coat all around the spade connector and fold back the tubing tab you had folded out earlier.
  • Let harden for about an hour.
  • Repeat this process for the other end.
  • Use an ohm meter to be sure the terminals and nichrome wire are isolated from the metal tubing before energizing.

Make sure the metal tubing near the epoxy does not exceed 400F or this will soften the 500 F epoxy and allow the spade connector to touch the tubing; causing a potential for short circuits, equipment damage, and electrocution. The temperature inside will be hotter than the outside.

Reverse Engineering to Specify Commercial Heaters

You can reverse engineer your heater to estimate the commercial heater specifications for your final product.

Resistance = Volts / Amps = Rref in heater formulas

Watts = Volts * Amps

Don’t forget to add a small margin for degradation over the life of the heater.

What to do with Custom Heaters

  • 12Vdc coffee cup warmer
  • 12 Vdc diesel fuel tank heater
  • 12 Vdc oil pan heater (cold climates)
  • 12 Vdc submersible cup warmer

Automated Failure Rate Analysis tools
~James Dunn

Whenever an electronic circuit is designed for the military, an evaluation must be made to estimate how long the circuit is expected to survive in the environment it will be used.

Each part produced has certain information provided by the manufacturer. Sometimes the Hardware Designer or the Failure Rate Analyst must contact the manufacturer and have them generate the information. Either way this information is available.

Develop a subroutine within the CAD software (like Mentor Graphics) for making PCB’s to collect the part numbers used:

  • no need to count or sort them, this information is readily available
  • make an excel compatible list of part numbers, easily done
  • upload the excel list into an excel workbook where a Visual Basic program massages the data
    • lists a part number, counts the occurrence and list quantity, deletes duplicates
    • compares part numbers with previously stored data
      • the data would include the failure rate information previously collected for that part number
      • the part numbers without failure rate information would be flaged and a web interface would notify the Failure Rate Analyst by email of the deficiencies
    • The Failure Rate Analyst would research and enter the missing information into the excel program
      • This information becomes available for the next time the program is run
    • When finished the excel program would automatically correlate the data and provide the needed information for the entire PCB to the Failure Rate Analyst
    • Other information that is derived could be fed to or from the Excel program for generating the written reports needed for military hardware automatically

The proposed system would save hundreds of labor hours per Hardware Assembly.

A Failure Rate Analyst makes between $45 and $75 per hour company gross expenditure, that would be a savings of at least $9,000 per Hardware Assembly.

Similar routines could be used for interface with other quality assurance programs. One such program groups parts together that form functional circuit sections. After grouping the parts together each circuit group is evaluated for failure relationships. The same excel spreadsheet program could automatically do the evaluations and save 40 hours per complex circuit board. Again this savings is significant per hardware assembly which may be as many as 10 boards. $40 per hour x 40 hours x 10 boards = $16, 000 per hardware assembly.

Combined, the producer of each military project could reduce their costs by $25,000 per electronic hardware assembly.

Simple automated analysis tools can make a military equipment manufacturer more competitive or realize greater profit margins. See ISO9001

November 27, 2008

How to Build a Weather Control System (WCS)

~James Dunn

The broader proposal is located at http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Weather Control System and Power Generation


Theory of Operation:

A thin film can be produced in space that is highly reflective on one side with electro-mechanical elements (piezo-electric, muscle wire, nano-tubes…) to control the curvature, or warp, of the mirror on the back side or embedded in the film as it is extruded (addressable MEM loops powered by induction). The mirror needs by necessity to be largely flat, the piezo-electric elements would provide active control to make precise focus possible, and to allow curvatures for various beneficial reasons.

If the mirror is produced with specific material distribution and with a slight convex curvature, the focus can be broadly changed through the rate of rotation. Ionizing radiation and manufacturing defects may mandate that active control of the mirror surface becomes a requirement to provide longer serviceable lifetimes.

Being able to focus the mirror is not needed to control the weather, the mirror could simply act as a shade structure to promote small temperature differentials. However, providing a mirror that can be focused provides a means of harvesting vast amounts of clean solar energy to displace the use of fossil fuels. Each mirror would potentially provide about one megawatt of power per day. Per day because most of the satellites will spend half their life in the shade of the Earth. So on average their day is proportional to our day in terms of energy production.

These mirrors can easily be a kilometer in diameter, or along a side, with only a very small amount of raw material. The mirror curvature should be actively controllable to compensate for varying forces created by solar winds and to allow focusing the mirror precisely. Small motorized weights can be used to control mirror position (see nonlinear 2-degrees of freedom control). By anticipating desired mirror angles the orbital trajectories can be actively calculated to provide a dynamically changing and overlapping mesh of mirror/shade structures to service most areas of the world (see Deep Thunder). The mirror sails its trajectory as the solar winds impart forces upon the mirror and accelerates or decelerates the mirror in an elliptical orbit around the Earth. Through coordinated use of many of these mirrors, the weather of an area can be actively controlled; and with many such groupings, globally.

The mirrors are not geo-synchronous! They orbit and change trajectories through computer coordination. They either position themselves to allow the passage of the Sun’s rays, or like a valve, turn to block the passage of the Sun’s rays and direct the light where needed; perhaps out into space. By having continuously overlapping trajectories, the system of mirrors provides a greying and smoothing effect where small changes spread out along an area so that positive control of weather extremes is maintained, but not noticeably from day to day. Weather would be published in advance like “TV Guide” for television.


Method of Production:

Raw materials from Earth, or harvested in space, are transported to a space-based factory that assembles/deploys/maintains the mirrors. (perhaps in the vicinity of a space elevator)

Stage 1: Centrifugal Mirror Stator

The radiation resistant mirror substrate is created by any number of different processes. For instance, in the vacuum and micro-gravity of space, extruding compounds can be performed very precisely.

A motor turns a hub six feet in diameter at some slow speed (extrusion under centrifugal force). A precision non-stick variable slot is machined continuously around the outside edge of the hub along its radius. A large pipe-like void is created connecting the slot at the edge of the hub, with a rotary joint to supply the mirror substrate compound (all machined on Earth). The heated and/or epoxy mixture of compounds is extruded into the slowly rotating cavity where it is pushed out through the outside precision slot (done in orbit). The centrifugal force pulls the compound out to a growing radius. The liquid compound has a high surface tension and holds together like a soap bubble.

The liquid compound is not conductive but has metal particulate to help shield the control elements on the opposite side of the mirror from ionizing radiation, and to provide electrostatic elements for pushing and pulling on during manufacture.

The rotation rate of the hub decreases as the extruded compound begins to solidify on its journey away from the center of the extrusion hub to limit the centrifugal forces. The temperature and/or hardening agent of the mixture is actively controlled to time the events so that the entire sheet sets up into a solid at the same moment, or at a rate where the inside edge solidifies at a slightly faster rate then the outside edge of the extrusion.

The hub is then disconnected from supply apparatus and the hub is used as the physical structure to house the control/communications package. The thickness of the membrane is thicker near the hub to support the local loading and bending moments. The extrusion slot is made adjustable to actively control the membrane thickness during its extrusion.

The liquid compound supply apparatus is removed from the hub. The mirror membrane is now permanently attached to the center hub. The compound supply apparatus is fitted with another hub and a new mirror substrate begins its manufacturing process.

Stage 2: Electrostatic Force Strain Apparatus (EFSA)

In space there are solar winds to apply forces to the mirror substrate while it is being manufactured. These forces are small but they need to be neutralized to prevent the mirror from having blemishes (wrinkles) in its surface.

The EFSA is laid parallel to the rays of the Sun. The rotating mirror substrate is maneuvered into the center of the EFSA. The EFSA is energized and the rotating mirror substrate is slowed to a stop.

The mirror would normally spin while in operation and the tendency of the mirror would be to flatten out. But during construction, the centrifugal forces would increase the complexity of applying the coatings and control elements.

Two parallel meshes of small ultra fine wires are formed in space in a large diameter; connected at the outer edges by rigid structures. The wires are charged with varying polarities in each opposing array, imparting controllable forces between the wire mesh arrays, and upon the mirror substrate. Through control of differential electrostatic charges, the basic shape of a mirror substrate laying between the mesh arrays can be automatically shaped by pushing and pulling on the mirror substrate surfaces. This allows for working on the mirror without centrifugal forces.

Stressing the wire mesh by differential electrostatic potentials provides an active control mechanism to remove the “wrinkles” of the mirror while applying the coatings and mechanical control elements to the mirror substrate.

Atomized materials are dispersed by electrostatic application, similar to powder coatings. Layered coatings are applied to the control side of the mirror substrate to create the active control elements for focusing the mirror.

A reflective coating is applied onto the reflective side of the mirror substrate.

Piezo-electric compounds (particulate under electromagnetic stress) and conductive pathways are preferentially applied. Metal particles are sprayed to provide the conductive pathways using electrostatic application. Capacitive components, charged networks, and common ground shielding provides piezo force stability in the ionizing radiation environment.

Alternatively, piezo-electric materials or nano-tube muscle wires, and the electrical pathways can be embedded in the mirror substrate as it is being extruded. However, the expansion rates of the liquid substrate must be taken into account.

Alternate Control Scheme:

MEMS technology allows for trillions of small devices to be produced that can be preferentially oriented as they are sprayed onto the mirror substrate. A loop of nanotubes can be addressably controlled from energy collected by induction near adjacent embedded wires. These loops can increase or decrease in diameter whenever the RFID-like device recieves a signal with it’s address. To compare an example, 36 unique addresses uniquely describe coordinates separated every 3 feet in the United States.

.

The control elements allow the active control of the surface of the mirror to provide precision control over the light reflected. In this way, even with imperfections in manufacturing and minor damage from space debris, the majority of the mirror will still function as designed.

The center of the mirror, the hub, is then outfitted with a mechanical control and communications package. A series of criss-crossed wires provide the electrical connections for controlling the piezo-electric manipulation elements. A gasketed pressurized cabin clamps around and through the hub to allow technicians to make the electrical connections and mount control hardware, free of space suits.

A small portion of the mirror is made into a solar array to power the mechanism, or a solar array is attached directly to the control/communication package. The intent is to have thousands of these mirrors, so most likely the mirror will sail its trajectory. Manufacturing thousands of mirrors would be like manufacturing thousands of cars. Mass production techniques makes this practical.

To create a somewhat rigid surface, the mirror may or may not be caused to rotate. Causing a tightening of the surfaces similar to what happens to a string, when slinging a weight on the end of that string in a circular path.

Once set into rotation, mirrors may be coated with different chemicals to cause different frequencies of light to be reflected, or limit the angle of reflection to allow further control of the reflected light and perhaps provide additional protection for the mirror surfaces. Different versions of mirrors would be uniquely designed for certain performance characteristics. For instance:

  • A prizm-like effect is produceable by using various coatings. This might reflect both low and high frequency light away from the Earth, while pouring only the visible spectrum of light onto an area on the Earth.
  • Infrared might be selected specific to providing ground-based solar collection stations with power. The infrared spectrum would allow producing power even in mildly clouded conditions.
  • Perhaps the direct conversion of photons into microwave energy.
    http://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/16111/1/Boechler_Nicholas_S_200705.pdf

Calibration of the mirror is accomplished by precisely positioning lasers stationary to the mirror hub and rotating the mirror. As the laser beam passes over the mirror surface the deviation of the reflection is recorded and the piezo electric (or other control) elements are manipulated to compensate. The mirror is then calibrated for flatness, and specific desired curvatures as anticipated for its anticipated orbital trajectories.

Once deployed, a robotic system can rendevous with mirrors to autonomously check calibration. This is a natural consequence of technology.

Methods of Application:

Additional solar energy higher in the atmosphere may provide for clear skies to allow more radiation from the surface to escape into space; cooling effect.

Mirrors reflect light away from the Earth; cooling effect.

Mirrors illuminate a portion of the Earth; heating effect.

Almost all weather is a function of temperature differentials.


Potential Benefits:

Control of flight related weather windows.

Far less weather related damaged infrastructure here on Earth (almost a trillion dollars saved annually)

This system provides more opportunities for space-based industries to develop.

Global Warming is REVERSED and controlled (all weather controlled).

Produces an abundance of clean energy; more than is presently used on the entire planet; virtually eliminating all human produced greenhouse gas emissions.

Commercial enterprise and space-based industry collaborate while the Government provides ethical oversight.

Emergency rescue resources; rain and retarding winds over forest fires, light during the night for rescue operations, passive reflectors for communication efforts, globally dispersed sensor systems, …


Potential Detractor:

Building the Weather Control System is inexpensive because it has immediate payback potential. However, misuse of the system could permanently damage micro-environments. An Ethical Oversight Committee would need to be put in place to ensure ethical use and implementation of induced weather phenomena.

Of particular importance is that an unstable condition is not created whereby the loss of the mirror system from an extraordinarily large solar flare or asteroid field strikes would cause environment failures on Earth. We must maintain naturally stable environments, and just use the WCS to make minor adjustments to prevent momentary out of control failure of our environments.

If a large volcano erupts, a small asteroid strikes the Earth, or the Earth’s magnetic field flips, we would be able to optimize the weather until the natural balances are restored.

Using Weather Control System (WCS) mirrors for collecting space debris
~James Dunn

Creating a global Weather Control System (WCS)

One of the problems with our space program is that it has deposited a number of satellites in space that are now trash moving at high velocities. There is also a vast amount of natural debris from asteroids, dirt ejected into space from large asteroid strikes on Earth, and a variety of other sources. The big pieces we track and eventually the space program will have no choice but to go collect them. These particles and objects are all travelling at high speeds in every direction, somewhat parallel with the Earths surface. Much of the debris is too small to detect from here on Earth. How do you collect something you can’t see, but is deadly?

The fastest bullits here on Earth can not travel faster than about 5,000 feet per second and are about the volume as a dime. Now imagine an object traveling more than 35,000 feet per second and anywhere from the size of dust to 24 inches in diameter. Deadly in the extreme. We can track objects larger than about 3 inches in diameter from Earth; so we can avoid collision with them. But what about the smaller debris?

As you get closer to an object, it is more easily detected. So when out in space and with no atmosphere to distort reflections, we should be able to track objects down to about the size of a grain of sand moving at high velocities.

How to collect Orbiting Debris

The WCS will maintain many hundreds of mirrors to regulate the Earth’s environment. The advent of nanotubes allows the structure of the mirror to be flexible, controllable, and tough. The carbon nanotubes are more than 1,000 times stronger than steel, and in some case can be made “self-mending”. Instead of applying compounds to a network of fine wires, the mirror support and control elements could concievably be made from carbon nanotubes.

As dust moving at high velocity hits the nanotubes it slows the dust and displaces part of the nanotube structure. For some parts of the structure, the nanotubes will repair themselves like disturbing a blob of mercury, it will reshape itself and coalesce to its original shape. Many such collisions over time will slow the dust sufficiently to fall out of orbit and burn up in our atmosphere.

Objects in very large eliptical orbits can have very high speeds as they pass lower orbits and come from directions at high angles to that of circular orbits. However, their large eliptical path makes them susceptable to gravitational influences of the moon which disturbs their flight path, making their orbit unstable. Very little debris is of this nature.

For any object to be in orbit, they must all be traveling at approximately the same speed for a given orbiting distance from the Earth, so the mirrors will be traveling at the same speed, but along a different trajectory. Larger pieces of space debris can be tracked and over time a mirror can match the debris trajectory and speed and wait for the debris to circle the Earth and come back to impact the mirror at relatively slow velocities.

The extreme low forces and gravity allows three muscle-wire style nanotubes to be elastically and coaxially attached to one another (the diameter of a small wire), to curl from the center of the mirror extending out to the debris, entangle the debris and move the debris slowly to a storage container. The robotic arm would then spiral loosely out from the center for storage. This ensures that a single debris strike will only damage the manipulator in one place, allowing the other manipulator to make repairs. The same robotic manipulators could also perform minor mirror repairs from high speed debris collisions.

What to do with the Collected Debris

Periodically, maintenance teams will be required to perform maintenance on all of the mirrors. The operable mirror will change its trajectory, speed, and altitude to match that of the Maintenance Station. For inoperable mirrors, a robotic vehicle will be deployed to tow the inoperable mirror. The debris collected will be processed and used as raw materials, as well as other financial opportunities as cited in related entries. The debris can also be inventoried, and then deposited into a stable orbit around a designated trajectory and altitude, and then tracked. When raw material is needed, inventory would provide where to get what, and a mirror would be sequenced to retrieve the material and dock with the maintenance platform.

This system allows for cleaning up debris that is orbiting the Earth, actively using debris as a resource, and allows for the mirror to have the resources to perform minor repairs on itself.

As with all advanced technologies, the controlling agency must be ethically structured.

Imaging Tool for doing Partial Contents Inventory
~James Dunn

Often times in industry, retail stores, grocery stores, and even the home, the need to do inventory is time consuming. If a package has an RFID, this simplifies inventory by allowing a wireless connection to a handheld computer to record its presence. However, if a product does not have an RFID or is partially filled, then an incorrect inventory assessment in made.

Imaging technology has come a long way in the past 10 years. Gesture recognition of peoples faces, precise positioning of electronic parts, separation of recyclable trash, are all current technologies.

Take a camera and program a computer to detect barcodes, net wt, percentage of fill height as seen through the side of a container, percentage of fill height as seen through the throat of a container, list of ingredients, guage readings as seen on tanks, and any other uniquely viewable useful information so as to make a general purpose tool.

Then provide a common interface for manufacturers to use this general purpose tool; perhaps the JAUS interface protocol ( http://www.jauswg.org ).

The uses for such a device include, but certainly are not limited to:

  • Nutrition Management Software (for institutions or the home)
  • Tool Management System (for industry or the home)
  • Incinerator Flame Profiling (for waste management)
  • Manual Guage Logging (allows operators to cross-reference manual guages with automated sensors (industry)