Cyclic Global Extinction – misnamed – Global Warming
~James Dunn
325 magnify

Contrary to popular belief, Global Warming isn’t a condition that will cause the world to heat up, in some areas like England and the West coast of Europe there will be extreme cold temperatures.

Global Warming was mis-named because the warming trends were the first indication of a developing unstable condition that affects world weather. Global Warming represents a delicate unstable nature of the Earth in which global extinction events have occured in the past, and they are happening again. We are simply in a part of the cycle where our polutive contributions are accelerating the process.

The Earth naturally destroys most life on Earth in cycles. Having millions of species die, including humans, is a natural consequence of living on Earth. However, if we use our technological edge, we can freeze the cycle and prevent the coming global extinction events.

Yes, “events” is plural; we have quite a few global extinction events to control if we want to ensure our great grand children will live in a world where they can survive in comfort, music, art, sports, personal development, prosperity, food and medicine plentiful, and blissfully diverse; instead of living in a post apocalyptic world where survival is the only thought for every day. We haven’t even started to control one of these global extinction systems!

I propose we nudge our weather conditions by mostly depriving the Earth of solar energy (reflecting energy before it hits our atmosphere over specific locations; glaciers, hurricanes, …). Only contributing to heating of the Earth in select locations and times to prevent extreme conditions that would have destructive consequences (tornados, monsoons, emergency relief, …).

The following is a compelling argument that makes siting around and doing nothing, unthinkable:

YouTube – “Most Terrifying Video You’ll Ever See
(General Logical Argument that Makes Passivly Waiting to see what happens Unthinkable)

Naturally occuring greenhouse gas production will occur regardless of human actions; like volcano emissions, peet methane release, methane permafrost melting, ….

However, we can control the temperature distributions over the Earth by shading various percentages of the Earth; which allows us to actively control the weather.

Self-Funding method to “Reverse” Global Warming, Control the Weather, and provide Abundant Clean Energy

Also, by providing abundant clean energy to power our interests, we can help to control the volume of greenhouse gases that is due to human activities.

What I’m proposing is that we actively control the environment, regardless of natural and human emissions; to STOP the natural CYCLIC GLOBAL EXTINCTION. But to do so in such a way that provides a stable environment so that if any portion of the system fails (meteor shower), that the Earth won’t fall off into an unstable condition like we have today; and it provides us enough time to rebuild.

Insulated Metal Roofing – Helping Reduce Global Warming
copyright © 2007
by James Dunn

All information is to be considered partial and experimental.

The roofs of most homes are usually a dark color that during the Summer, absorbs enough solar energy that it makes the attics quite hot; this reduces the temperature of the exposed roofing materials. A blanket of insulation between the attic and living spaces provides somewhat reduced costs for heating and air conditioning. The greater the insulating “R” factor, the greater the utility cost savings.

The cost savings of blanket or blown-in insulation in the attic is somewhat reduced by “insulation bypass”; these are conductive and convective thermal channels that get around and through insulating barriers: concrete supports, wood structures, metal reinforcements and brackets, wiring, columns of air-flow in the walls, condensation, …

However, from a Global Warming point of view, most rooftops are designed to amplify the effect of global warming.

* Solar energy is converted into low frequency infrared energy, re-radiated out into the local environment, and transmitted into convective heat in the attics; which is pumped out of the vents of attics into the surrounding environment; either through passive air-flow or by forced ventilation.
o These low infrared energy levels are not as easily re-radiated out into space, less so than the higher energy levels of infrared from the primary heated surfaces of the roof, had the roofing material not been allowed to cool as much.
o The primary surfaces have reduced temperatures from the heat conducting into the attic and therefore re-transmits infrared energy at a lower wavelength; providing greater heating of the local environment.

Sheet metal roofing has become a popular and robust method of roofing modern homes. As such, sheet metal roofing coupled with an insulating board, also provides a means of helping to suppress global warming in four ways:

1. Re-radiating all solar energy wavelengths back out into space, including infrared; especially if white.
2. Providing improved thermal insulation in rooftops.
3. Coupled with thermally controlled attic vents, optimizing beneficial thermal gradients.
4. Reducing the energy consumed via utility companies (reducing global warming trends).

When replacing your present roof, remove the shingles down to your plywood roof sheeting. Lay and secure a low-compressive insulating barrier sheeting onto the roof (extruded polystyrene is about R-9 per inch). Secure the metal roofing materials to this insulating barrier sheeting. An intermediate paneling or 1/4″ plywood sheeting may be necessary for some applications either for bonding adhesive compatibilities, or for controlling thermal gradients. If possible, use an adhesive system instead of screws or nails to prevent the heat from being transmitted into the attic through the metal of screws and nails.

Care should be taken in considering thermal expansion of the metal materials and providing the movement necessary to prevent buckling of the roofing materials. The raised ridges often provide the needed expansion space and spacing in the lateral dimension, but the vertical dimension is often neglected and crackling noises can be heard during times of expansion/contraction extremes. Slip joints are an often used construction technique. The adhesive must provide both flexibility and adhesion at higher than normal temperatures.

Make sure the metal roofing manufacturer approves of your method of providing an insulating barrier between the roof and their metal sheeting; so you don’t violate a warranty, and you do not have a premature roofing failure. The materials and construction techniques should be simple, but they should also be engineered and not just flippantly tried on ones own incentive.

This will maximize the metal temperatures of the roofing material, while helping to minimize the energy transmitted into the home. The volume of heat needing to be removed from the attic is significantly reduced. The much higher roofing metal temperature more readily re-transmits solar energy back out into space, and therefore helps to reduce global warming. Lighter colors reflect more energy, but even if you choose darker colors for aesthetic reasons, the energy re-transmitted back into space will be much higher than if not using the insulation barrier, or if using other roofing materials like tile, shingles, or tar/gravel.

Roofing materials are commonly aluminum and have very low heat capacity and will NOT store energy for any appreciable time. In only a few minutes under cloud cover, the metal will be at ambient temperatures.

Installing attic forced ventilation and shutters coupled with a differential thermostat can significantly contribute to utility savings.

If you use a Swamp Cooler (used in low humidity climates instead of refrigerated air conditioning; lower cost to run), you can vent your outlet air partly through your attic, as well as out partially opened windows, to significantly improve the cooling efficiency of your swamp cooler. Hot air rises, so more of the interior hot air will exhaust through the attic. While the attic is significantly warmer than any of the air inside the living spaces. Thus both cooling the interior more, and cooling the attic as well. Swamp Coolers run continuously at a small fraction of the cost as refrigerated air conditioning. Use a ceiling vent that has an automatic damper (cheap) so that you don’t lose heat through the vent in the winter months.

The differential thermostat is made by comparing the outside ambient temperature with the temperature of the attic. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) can be purchased with thermocouple inputs for less than $200. Additionally, the PLC can be used for a hundred other uses like controlling your Solar Collector system, building security, exterior lighting controls, sprinkler system control, … A fan with shutters is at one end of the house, with motorized shutters at the other end of the house. The forced air circulating fan and shutters are controlled by these temperature sensors:

Outside Temp
Sensor

Attic Temp greater than Outside Temp

Interior Temp greater than Attic Temp

Fan & Motorized Shutter

> 10° F

Low Speed

>75° F

> 5° F

Low Speed

>75° F

> 10° F

High Speed

* The attic fan runs whenever the attic is significantly (> 10° F) cooler than the interior of the house. Humidity of the house will collect (dew point) in the attic whenever the temperature of the attic is significantly less than that of the house interior. This can reduce the insulating properties of the insulation and actual water can collect to damage building materials (ever notice water spots on people’s ceilings?).
* Whenever the Outside air Temperature is greater than 75° F “AND” the Attic Temperature is greater than the Outside air Temperature by 5° F, the shutters will open and the Attic Fan will run at low speed. This reduces the temperature gradient between the attic space and the living spaces, so as to conserve the need for air conditioning.
* Whenever the Outside air Temperature is greater than 75° F “AND” the Attic Temperature is greater than the Outside air Temperature by 10° F, the shutters will open and the Attic Fan will run at high speed. The cost of running a ventillation fan is far lower than running refrigerated air conditioning.

A simple air-flow switch-type sensor can be used to indicate when the system is operating as expected.

* I can provide the diagnostic electrical/electronic information if you are interested in automating diagnostics and trouble-shooting messages.

By minimizing the temperature difference between the attic and the inside living spaces during the Summer, the “insulation bypass” is minimized. The cooling load is minimized and utility usage similarly minimized.

If you have the resources, you can provide a number of upgrades to reduce heat transfer through your windows:

* extend the overhang of the roof so that the windows of the house reside in the roof overhang shadow for most of the day
* angle windows to prevent sunlight from entering directly, except during Winter months
* apply window glazings to reflect light at lower critical angles
* install infrared blocking windows
* install shutters that can be closed from inside the building
* grow small-limb shade trees to help shade the house
* install insulated draperies
* install infrared blocking polycarbonate windows
* install multi-layer window assemblies (thermo-pane windows)

The outlined method above can be expected to pay for itself in reduced utility costs; while helping to reduce Global Warming, which is priceless.

A Self-Funding method to “Reverse” Global Warming
~James Dunn

A Self-Funding method for Weather Control,
while providing Abundant Clean Energy to replace ALL fossil fuels

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Without a clean interactive “tool” for control of global temperatures, we are relying upon the unstable nature of our environment to continue to mend itself, regardless of our abusive actions. In addition to our own actions, history has shown that nature often has global extinction events. There are many natural generators of greenhouse gases.
If the methane permafrost melts, billions of people may die from reduced global agricultural harvests, aggravated by unstable plant pathogens caused from reduced plant and animal diversity. Currently over 6 million people die of starvation annually; this number will only increase. Those people in positions of influence who do not act now to save those peoples’ lives, are directly responsible for their deaths.
Oil Company Revenues – A necessary transition
Oil is a fixed commodity. The revenue generated by oil can be extended from a 100 year supply to a 1,000 year (or more) supply; if it is used to make products instead of fuel. Of course with reduced production, the price per barrel would increase, but delivery costs are reduced because supertanker ships need not be built. So the cost of plastics, antifreeze, and lubricants would increase due to the restricted supply. Cost per barrel of oil being a balance between shipping cost savings and supply/demand of the products produced using fossil fuel. Regardless, this seems an attractive trade-off for a green economy. Especially when the cost of electric utilities plummet and the cost of hydrogen correspondingly plummets.
As for comparative costs:

* How much does it cost to build AND maintain a supertanker?
* How much does it cost to continually develop new oil resources?
* How much does bad press cost?

Additionally, by having the Oil Companies fund a Global Energy System, the free and multimillion year supply of solar energy provides incomes that can not be generated by fossil fuels. For instance, even with oil at $50 a barrel, it was not economically feasible to develop the Northern parts of Canada, the Sahara, or event the US Southwest. The low energy density of oil coupled with shipping costs has made living in remote locations impractical.
Because of the broadly distributed nature of space-based solar collectors, the cost of fuel anyplace in the world is virtually the same. New technology based populations can be developed in the most remote places on Earth. The Earth can easily support 100 billion people if there is sufficient energy resources. So Oil Companies would be selling power to 100 billion people, instead of the current 6.7 billion people. There are other significant sources of related revenue as well.
That’s an estimated increase of 15 times the current energy usage; 17 times the current net revenues (more energy users, higher cost per barrel of oil, lower oil infrastructure costs, …).
Ecologically Sound Solution

The problems with most solutions proposed for controlling Global Warming are:

* the expense and the requirement for on-going funding
* high risk of damage to the environment
* ineffective nature of proposal
* narrow focus of proposal, not allowing for collateral and beneficial enterprise to develop
* foreseeable health hazards
* inability to attain multilateral support of all nations

We must initiate a comprehensive process that not only addresses the symptoms of Global Warming, but also addresses the core causes; including those causes that are “naturally” produced.
Space-based Solar Concentration Facilities

Establish a space based solar energy collection and conversion system to generate an excess of abundant clean energy for the world. Real Estate is free in space and is unencumbered by political boundaries. This system would minimize (if not eliminate) the need for fossil fuels by using solar energy to generate cheap hydrogen to power fuel cells and engines. Petroleum would be produced for plastics and other products, extending petroleum industry survival for several hundred years. Providing cheap electrical energy to the world allows for hydrogen and water to be extracted locally anywhere on the planet:
A current self-contained system in use to produce electricity from the Sun:
http://www.stirlingenergy.com/

Increasing outputs through solar concentrators:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=5
Building a Weather Control System:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=81

Method for controlling mirror rotation:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=68

Collateral Business Developments
Use the sale of power to fund the Space Elevator, thus reducing the cost of shipping and transportation to/from orbit to 10% of current costs; thus making access to space available to virtually anyone. A side benefit will be the many start-up industries that capitalize on the mass production of carbon nanotubes.

Vehicle strengths can increase hundreds of times over present vehicles while weighing significantly less. Vehicles can potentially impact at up to 20 mph without any significant damage. Mountain climbing ropes can be reduced in size to the size of a string and be stronger than present ropes; allowing for lighter pack loads and longer ropes. A 1200 pound Harley Davidson motorcycle could be made to weigh less than 200 pounds; while being considerably stronger and more powerful. Commercial airliners could have ballistic parachutes which automatically deploy to save the lives of passengers. Buildings can be produced which can withstand the strongest of earthquakes. Skyscrapers a thousand stories tall. Diamond cable saws capable of cutting up asteroids for mining. Earth boring machine cutting heads that are much stronger, more efficient, lighter, and more versatile. Allowing for subterranean habitat development; here on Earth, the Moon, Mars, large asteroids, and other planets and their moons. A woven sheet of nanotubes and bonding agent would line the caverns to provide air tight living spaces. Orbiting and transiting space habitat structures large enough to hold thousands of inhabitants including their systems for being self-sufficient. Computer and cell phone cases that are virtually indestructible; yet lighter than anything we currently have:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=4

Develop space-based industry to further technological developments and provide greater employment through economic growth:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=6

Create a low-cost fuel free orbiting service vehicle to provide for orbiting commercial laboratories, service vehicles for orbiting instrumentation and equipment, habitats, tow vehicles, Earth to Moon transports, repair platforms, …

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=194

Systematically cleanup orbiting space debris and force nations to be accountable for contributing to space debris:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=67

Building a global Weather Control System
Establish a global Weather Control System (WCS) to Reverse and provide active control over Global Warming and rebuild the glaciers, ensure the methane permafrost remains intact, control the ash laden winds in the vicinity of erupting volcanoes, manage predictable rainfall for agriculture, control wind direction and rainfall for forest fires, eliminate severe weather and the resulting damage, promote responsible ecological controls, …

The world revenue spent and lost outside of intent because of weather phenomena approaches 1 Trillion dollars annually. The total weather control system is a fraction of this cost and can be funded through the sale of power and fractional royalties from space based industry developments.

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=2

Looking to the Future
Through a series of technological processes we can quickly transition from a species dependent upon our natural environment, to a species that becomes a responsible part of our environment, and this system provides the means to support the ever growing human populations. While taking an active part in preserving our ecology and ensuring our grandchildren will experience the richly diverse life we presently enjoy; and perhaps a world with greater diversity and wonders not yet imagined.

In 1776 there were less than 700 million people worldwide. The second of two people living to be 100 years old would have seen 1976 and a population of over 3,000 million (3 billion) people; a growth of 4.3 times as many people in 2 peoples lifetimes. Presently, there are over 6.7 billion people; the world population has doubled in less than 30 years. We can fully expect there to be at least 35 billion people by 2076. Medicine and food supply technologies improve, people naturally live longer, what will life be like unless we provide a habitat, interesting employment, and business opportunities?

Currently, China uses people with shovels and rakes to process their sewage, because labor is so cheap. What will our grandchild’s life be like if we do not push our horizons above that of the Earth?

Within just 50 years, it is expected that between 1/3 and 1/2 of all known species of plants and animals will verge upon extinction due to salt water encroachment of coastal wetlands. How do we plan to help maintain our ecological diversity to provide natural food chain stability? Already, corn and potato crops are documented to be at risk worldwide.
Over 6 million people currently starve annually; it can be shown that almost 30 million people will starve annually by 2076 unless we act diligently in the present.

We must have a comprehensive system that provides for the needs of our small world. Allowing us to have more, not less. Allowing our population to grow; responsibly.

Initiate a comprehensive self-funded system to actively “Reverse” Global Warming, provide for a diverse ecology, provide for economic growth, provide abundant clean power, control extreme weather, and provide for our ever growing world population.
To find & email your specific Congressmen and Senators:

* Your State’s Congressmen
* Your States’ Senators

To email Congressman all across the United States:

*
http://www.conservativeusa.org/mega-cong.htm

To talk directly with the staff of your representatives:

*
(202) 225-3121 for the House
*
(202) 224-3121 for the Senate

_________________________________________________________
Global Warming can be controlled by promoting small temperature changes
and Abundant Clean Energy can be harvested at the same time…
A practical system to “Reverse” Global Warming needs your support:

* http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Ethically Eliminate ALL Political Corruption:

* http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=57

Add this information to your email ‘signature’
_________________________________________________________
Other related websites:
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Weather_control
http://technorati.com

WCS Mirror used as Low-Cost Orbiting Service Vehicle
~James Dunn

The Weather Control System (WCS) mirrors have the strong potential of sailing controllable orbiting trajectories around the Earth. This makes them useful as low cost robotic service vehicles.

Many satellite orbits degrade over time. Slipping outward into space, falling back to Earth, losing their geosynchronous position, … By using the controllable sailing feature of the WCS mirrors, satellites can be vectored back into their desired orbiting trajectory and therefore extend their useful lifetime.

For a square mirror 3,000 feet on a side, the solar wind would impart about 7.8 Newtons of force, or about 1.7 pounds of force. Doesn’t seem like much does it. But let’s look a little closer. Assume the mirror has a mass of 500 kilograms (1102 pounds), after 24 hours of continuous exposure to the light from the Sun, that is a difference in speed of over 3,000 miles per hour.

This is similar to standing on a dock next to a large boat. The boat might weigh 50 tons. But by applying a continuous force with your hands, you can move the boat around.

So on each trip around the Earth, if the mirror turns sideways to slip through the solar wind when traveling towards the Sun, and the mirror fully catches the solar wind when traveling away from the Sun, the mirror can continue to accelerate to greater and greater speeds. Or conversely, to slower and slower speeds. Tiping the sail related to the direction of the solar wind would cause side forces that would allow the mirror to change the direction it is traveling.

When constructed, the mirror will be in a stationary orbit; most likely in geosynchronous orbit if built in the vacinity of a Space Elevator.

The sailing feature of the WCS mirror has the potential of providing tow services for other mirrors in need of repair, deploying satellites from an orbiting work platform, and becoming a part of a manned platform that also happens to help control Earths weather.

However, any additional mass added to a mirror structure (laboratory) will reduce the acceleration available for the same size of mirror.

The sailing feature would allow a space-based laboratory at it’s center to circumnavigate the Earth along a desired trajectory, harvest the solar energy needed for its work, and thus providing the laboratory with long term fuel-less propulsion.

These orbiting laboratories could provide:

* on-going repair support for the WCS mirrors
* long term space-based factory platforms
* the ability to cost effectively harvest materials from asteroids and comets
* each platform could have emergency supplies to help reduce risk factors in a community of enterprise based platforms
* space colonies become practical
o many provide supply and transport services
o a couple of space factories produce solar cells
o a couple refine raw materials
o a couple provide equipment to recycle oxygen
o many produce food
o some produce medical supplies
o some provide medical services
o …

In 1776 the total world population was less than 700 million people. In two consecutive 100 year lifetimes the population has increased to over 3 Billion people. The population has grown by about 4.3 times. At this rate of growth, your baby being born today will be part of a world population of over 10 Billion people near the end of its life of 100 years. Global Warming will have changed everything we understand as being a natural resource.

We must act diligently in the present to ensure the survival of our children in the future.

We will have spent much more money on the War in Iraq ($1 Trillion dollars projected) as it would have cost to build the entire Weather Control System and Global Energy System. Only a fraction of this money is needed to build the Space Elevator and the first phase of the weather control and global energy systems; at which point the WCS and GES become self funding by selling power back to the World Community. A fraction of the money spent on the war with Iraq could have saved the world from Global Warming, and saved $500 Billion dollars a year in weather related destruction and lost revenue.

What jobs are your children going to have as part of a 10 billion person population? In China, people are using rakes and shovels to process sewage, because labor is so cheap.

Lowering the Cost of Heating – Converting a Window A/C to a Heat Pump
~James Dunn

Disclaimer:

Do NOT attempt to act upon or disseminate any portion of the following unless you read the full content of the Disclaimer linked herein: Click Here

Using a Window Air Conditioner as a Heat Pump to Lower Energy Costs

Safety Precautions (partial list): Ensure your installation and environmental conditions will not damage the air conditioner and living space structure, shock and fire hazards due to workmanship, electrical properties of components must be compatible

Currently, people use window air conditioners to cool their living space during the summer months. During the winter months they use traditional heating systems like electric heating elements, gas burners, oil fired boilers…

Often, the most efficient heating of choice is the electric heat pump. What is a heat pump? A heat pump is an air conditioner that is turned around and pushing heat into the living space, and has the thermostat inside the living space. A heat pump is only efficient above 40 degrees Fahrenheit; shutting off the heat pump and providing an alternative source of supplemental heating is required for temperatures below 40F.

An air conditioner captures the heat from the air and the heat from the refrigeration pump and shoves that heat out through the condenser. Turn the air conditioner around and now the air conditioner is taking the heat from outside plus the heat from the refrigeration pump and shoving it into the living space. You get much more heat doing this per watt of power used than by any other commonly available commercial method.

So the concept is to turn the window air conditioner around so as to transfer the heat from outside and push it into the living space to supplement traditional heating systems, and mount a thermostat inside the living space to automatically control the temperature during the winter months. This method would not work well in Northern States, but should work very effectively in Southern States.

A weather-proof awning would need to go over the air conditioner to protect the controls; since they will now be out in the weather. On some window air conditioners there is an internal vent, this should be closed to prevent losses of heat from inside the living space. The controls will be turned to the lowest setting or jumpered out so as to run continuously. The plug inside the house can not be manually plugged in and unplugged as heat is desired; because the compressor will try to start as soon as you try to plug the unit in. This will damage the plug outlet over time and may cause the plug to get hot enough to cause a fire. Instead, make a small thermostatically controlled relay to install between the air conditioner plug and the power source.

You can use your present heating system to turn your “heat pump” on and off by installing a power relay off of your heater fan control relay coil (usually 24 Vac, check your schematic). When your heater fan comes on, it remotely pulls in your power relay (mounted in your circuit breaker panel) to energize the outlet circuit that feeds your air conditioner. This allows the heat to circulate throughout the entire house. This gets rid of all of the parts needed except the power relay (~$15) , some low voltage wire, and some terminations.

However, if you need an independent system completely separate from the your normal heating and cooling system, maybe for your garage or storage shed, the following describes how to make an external thermostat for your “heat pump”.

There are several sources for getting a thermostat to control your heat pump/air conditioner as described herein.

* salvage the thermostat from your air conditioner
* salvage the thermostat from an old air conditioner
* get an old junked out refrigerator from an apartment complex maintenance man
* salvage the thermostat from an old space heater
* purchase a new thermostat from an appliance parts suppiler

* While salvaging the thermostat, salvage the power relays as well. They might not be useful, but one never knows.

You might want to salvage a thermostat from an old air conditioner or refrigerator, so you don’t destroy your air conditioner; while you find out if the following is going to work.

If your window air conditioner uses 220Vac instead of the 110Vac commonly available at household outlets, you may need to find a thermostat from an old 220Vac air conditioner; make sure you salvage the power cord and the 220Vac plug.

Assuming the refrigerator is someplace around 70F and unplugged, listen for the contacts to click as you rotate the thermostat to warmer settings. If it doesn’t, it may be incapable of controlling at room temperatures. No use having to dispose of a refrigerator if you can’t use the thermostat. Find another junked out refrigerator to use.

When you find a workable thermostat, salvage the thermostat along with the terminations and the attached wires, and the power cord & plug. Most thermostats of this type are designed to start and stop the refrigeration pump without the need for an additional relay, however, you are going to be using the thermostat for heating, not cooling.

Wire the thermostats made for cooling to a normally-closed power relay.
Wire the thermostats made for heating to a normally-open power relay.

When the room temperature drops and the air conditioner thermostat contacts open, the normally-closed power relay will start the heat pump to warm the living space.

When the room temperature drops and the space heater thermostat contacts close, the normally-open power relay will start the heat pump to warm the living space.

Air conditioner/refrigerator thermostats open the contacts as it gets colder.
Heater thermostats close the contacts as it gets colder.

To build the 110 Vac thermostat (if you have a 220 Vac, email me and I’ll post instructions):

Get the following from Lowes or some similar electrical supply (about $30 in parts, less if you can salvage parts)

* 1 – electrical outlet (< $2)
* 1 – power relay (<$15)
o normally-closed if using an a/c thermostat
o normally-open if using a heating thermostat
o with contacts of sufficient voltage and current to run compressor
o with a coil rating of 110 Vac
* 1 – triple outlet electrical box, metal preferred ( < $6)
o like what you would use for having 3 outlets side by side in the bathroom or kitchen
o ensure the thermostat you salvaged and power relay will fit in the box with the above outlet before you buy the electrical box
* 1 – strain relief for the cord (< $1)
* 1 – metal cover plate for 1 outlet and 2 switches (< $4)

1. Cut off 12″ of the corded plug wire to use for wiring the thermostat and relay. Ensure the insulation is in good condition.
2. Feed the cord with the plug through the strain relief and attach the neutral lead to the silver terminal of the outlet.
3. Wire from the silver terminal of the outlet to the neutral side of the 110 Vac relay coil.
4. Wire the line side of the plug wire to the line side of the thermostat.
5. Wire the control side of the thermostat to the line side of the relay coil.
6. Create an opening in the electrical box cover plate to allow mounting the thermostat in the cover plate.
7.
1. Ensure you leave enough room for the outlet and the coiled tubing for the temperature bulb when installed in the box.
2. Mount the thermostat temperature bulb outside of the electrical box
1. ensure you do not kink the tubing
8. Screw in the outlet into the electrical box.
9. Secure the cover to the electrical box.
1. You may need to pull the cord out as you put on the cover to give enough room inside the box.
10. Secure the strain relief.

To test your work:

1. Plug in a lamp to test the circuits.
1. check to see if the lamp works before starting
2. With the lamp turned on, dial the thermostat up and down until the lamp turns on and off.
3. Repeat by hooking the unit between the wall outlet and your window air conditioner.
1. After stopping an air conditioner, let it rest for 5 minutes before you attempt to restart the unit.

Hang your thermostatically controlled outlet on the wall adjacent to your air conditioner about 4 to 5 feet off the floor and 12″ from the window if cord length allows.

This type of external thermostat is also useful in the summer time when you turn the air conditioner around to cool the house. Because normally the fan must run all the time in window air conditioners so the internal thermostat can sense room temperature. With a modification of the new wall mounted thermostat you made, the fan will only have to run when your external thermostat energizes the air conditioner.

There is a limitation. The outside air can not be less than 20F for the system to work effectively. In this case you would have to rely totally upon your present heating system. One such air conditioning unit will probably not heat your entire living space, though it may.

You can buy a heat pump for this purpose, but it is significantly more than a standard air conditioner. You can buy a new small window air conditioner without a thermostat for less than $200. Or find a used one for much less than that.

If you do not want to be flipping the window air conditioner around every season, and you have two windows in the same living space, set one up for air conditioning and the other for heating. You only need the external thermostat for the heat pump.

General tips to save on heating and air conditioning bills

* Keep in mind, the fewer living spaces you have to heat/cool, the lower the power bills
o don’t heat/cool rooms that you are not using
+ close the doors and windows
+ shut the forced air vents, or put a rug / book over them
o but make sure you have at least 2 vents open
o make sure there is a path for the air to flow from the vent to the return
* Keep the thermostat turned down for heaters /turned up for air conditioners so as to minimize the energy usage.
* Change your air filters once a month with the cheapest air filter you can find
o the cheaper the filter the less air restriction there will likely be
o maximize the air flow, but do NOT run an air conditioner without an air filter or it will damage the air conditioner
o a really dirty air filter can cost you over $500 in one month
* If you are only living in one room of your house, even if you don’t heat that room with the above heat pump, use a small space heater and leave your central heating and air conditioner shut off.

Water Supply – Anywhere there is Electricity
~James Dunn

Disclaimer:

Do NOT attempt to act upon or disseminate any portion of the following unless you read the full content of the Disclaimer linked herein: Click Here

Water Supply – Anywhere there is Electricity
~James Dunn

Safety Precautions (Partial List): Potential for biological and other types of contamination, unforseen health hazards, periodic laboratory testing of water recommended

With the advent of a Global Energy System, electricity will be cheaply available almost anywhere in the world, and on any planet, asteroid, and space platform. Water in many of these places will be scarce and there needs to be a method of extracting water using solar energy or some other source of energy.

Where there is water, but it is polluted or is alkalie, filters are available for purifying the water that is present. But filters are most often consumable. Once expended they must be replaced. In remote areas this may be impractical so reverse osmosis filtration is commonly used.

However, many arrid regions suffer from a lack of water and it must be hauled from a supply. Here in New Mexico is one such place. There are many people who live in remote places where a water well is not practical. While the elderly and handicapped find hauling water is an extreme chore to tend. Or the cost of hauling is prohibitive.

For many of these places, this is no longer necessary. Technology exists today that is currently used for other purposes, but can provide an adequate source of drinking and cooking water. What is this technology, a household dehumidifier! A dehumidifier will extract water directly from the air.

A dehumidifier works like your air conditioner. The ambient air passes over a cold coil that looks like the radiator in your car called an evaporator. If the coil is more than 15 degrees cooler than the ambient air temperature the moisture in the air will collect on the coils. The air continues to pass through another coil called a condenser where the heat is put back into the air, plus the heat of the refrigeration pump. The air leaving the dehumidifier has less humidity than the air going in and is slightly warmer.

This technology does not work very well where the ambient air temperature is less than 50 F because the water may tend to freeze at the evaporator unless an automatic expansion valve is installed. Even then the lower limit for having a dew point sufficient for condensation of a liquid is around 45 F. So in this situation, the dehumidifier can be located inside the living space and contribute the energy used to heating the living space.

You can purchase this technology, relatively inexpensively, to allow you to live anywhere in the world with sufficient water to survive, if not comfortably. Electricity is often available from the local utility company. Solar panels and electric generators using various sources of fuel, are often used in remote locations for lighting and refrigeration.

Some desireable characteristics:

* several models available that have stainless steel evaporators
* A unit I have used produces about 5 gallons of water a day
* A cleanable plastic catch basin for the water collected.
* I can not speak to the efficiency of water volume to watt expended for any of the different models.
* Try to choose one where you can periodically clean the evaporator and condenser.
* Also, at the air inlet, choose a model where you can attach ducting to feed areas of high humidity to the dehumidifier.

Install a commercial air filter somewhere in the dehumidifier air inlet ducting. This will help keep dust and insects from getting into the evaporator and condensing down into your water supply. Although, I’ve never seen any in the water I have condensed.

Optionally, you could put a small pump and level control switch in the catch basin to pump the water to a larger holding tank if you desire continuous operation or you want a considerable reserve available.

If your living space is warm, put the dehumidifier outside of your living space and duct the air from your living space to the dehumidifier. The dehumidifier produces a certain amount of heat when it is running. This helps to bring cooling fresh air into your living space and allows the dehumidifier to capture the moisture contained in your living space. One such place is outside of your kitchen where the heat and moisture from cooking can be ducted through your dehumidifier. The other is your bathrooms where humidity might be captured.

Couple this technology with humidity confinement compartments to recover moisture from garbage, ground moisture, and even sewage. This increases the efficiency by allowing more condensate per watt of energy used; reducing the cost per gallon.

Custom designed units cost considerably more, but over time they may provide lower costs. But the portable units are readily available and inexpensive. If there is a problem with the unit, it can be less expensive to replace the portable unit than to fix a custom unit.

The unit I’ve used has been running intermittently for about 4 years. The water quality seems to be cleaner than city or well water. You could periodically take samples for analysis.

If you are going to use this as your only source of water, you must take vitamin and mineral supplements. This is basically distilled water, nothing but water. City and well water have a considerable amount of minerals. Distilled water can strip the minerals from your body if the foods you are eating do not have the minerals you need.

Costs of water aren’t cheap, but with care the energy costs are in the neighborhood of $1.50 or less per gallon. So for about $50 a month, you get all the drinking and cooking water you need; anywhere in the world that has electricity, based upon present and local utility costs. In some areas the cost of power is much less, in others much more.

Yet another alternative is if you are running a refrigerated air conditioner to cool your home. The water coming from the air conditioner is distilled water. Most commercial air conditioners use copper tubing and aluminum heat fins to build the evaporator. The aluminum might have negative health effects. If a stainless steel evaporator can be sized and installed in place of the copper/aluminum evaporator, then the system will be free of any metals contamination. Install a cleanable catch tray under the stainless steel evaporator and pump the condensed water to a holding tank.

So long as your ducting is clean and you have a clean air filter, there won’t be anything there except fresh water. In this way you get fresh water for drinking and cooking, and maybe even enough for showers and washing your clothes.

However, air conditioning and heating is the largest portion of all costs for utilities. So if you use a much smaller dehumidifier just to get the water you need, your utility bill will be much less. But if you refuse to go without refrigerated air conditioning, then you might as well benefit from the water that is produced, especially if you can sell that water to pay for your air conditioning.

Regulation of a Weather Control System & Global Energy System
~James Dunn

If your grandparents lived to be 100 years old and they died today, they would have seen the majority of all pollution created, the human population increase by 2 billion people, more animal and plant extinctions than in the previous 2 million years, most of what technology has had to offer, and experienced life before technology as we know it.

Unless something is done, and done in the next few years, within your grandchildren’s lifetime, humanity may become largely extinct.

Think this is an exageration? There is an abundant amount of information to support this potential. As diversity diminishes, so does the stabilizing effects. Imagine corn, wheat, and potatos getting a plant virus or genetic disease that wipes out those crops, what will you do to feed 3 billion peoples? Corn and potatos are already at risk!

Think into the future; where active control of the weather is a reality.

If there is a practical method of controlling the weather so that Global Warming can be reversed, is it a crime for any governing body on Earth to abstain from helping to establish a Weather Control System (WCS)? Would they be liable for any damages, injuries, and deaths incurred because of negligently failing to provide remedy?

Weather Control System (WCS)

Additionally, the WCS can provide abundant clean power, more than what the world currently consumes; eliminating the majority of all human produced greenhouse gases.

WCS provides Solar Power to power the World

How would we regulate the power distribution and cost of power since it would be virtually a monopoly?

Obviously, we need to be careful about abusing such a system. But it is a viable tool for helping to ensure our survival; especially if nothing else works. One third to one half of all known land base species of plants and animals are expected to tend toward extinction within the next 50 years! You don’t have much time to make a difference!

What laws would have to be put into place to ensure the ethical use of a Weather Control System, and a Global Energy System?

Building 12V Electric Pre-Heaters from Trash – Alternative Fuel Systems
~James Dunn

Disclaimer:

Do NOT attempt to act upon or disseminate any portion of the following unless you read the full content of the Disclaimer linked herein: Click Here

Building 12V Electric Pre-Heaters from Trash – Alternative Fuel Systems

Safety Precautions (Partial List): The materials selected and procedures cited by the individual experimenter may contain asbestos, dangerous gases, explosive conditions, electric shock potentials, fire hazards, and other health hazards and hazards to equipment and structures not foreseen, …

Preface

Often, people experimenting with various ideas need a custom heat source for producing a desired effect. Standard heaters are often not commercially available in the configuration or voltages that are desireable for a particular setup. For instance, 12 VDC tubing heaters to pre-heat alternative fuels before combustion are expensive; when you can find them. Custom heaters can cost thousands of dollars for initial manufacturing setup. To reduce the initial research costs, custom heaters can be built from trash.

These heaters are especially useful for heating tubing, diesel fuel lines, etc. Again, assume worst case scenarios when engineering your heater.

Where to get your experimental parts

A heater can be easily built from old electric stove burners; even the ones no longer working. They cost about $30 a piece to purchase new, but you can go to any apartment complex and ask their maintenance supervisor to save you a couple of “stove eyes” or “oven burner elements” when they have to be replaced. Even the ones “burned out” can be made into useful heaters. Many maintenance people will do this happily if you tell them why you need the old burners. I find the oven elements are easier to work with.

If they have a stove they are throwing out, take the Oven Temperature Controller. The mechanical type has a bulb and capillary tube that is especially useful for controlling the temperature of tubing and is adjustable from 200F up to 550F.

Construction of heater element

Because the outside tube is isolated from the actual heating element, you can clamp these heaters directly to tubing or whatever else you are wanting to heat.

The elements are composed of a thin nichrome wire passing through a electrically insulative material,and clad with a stainless steel tube. The white electrically insulative material may be asbestos, though I do not know for sure. Do not let any of the dust get in your ears, eyes, nose, mouth, or other orifice and wash off any on your skin immediately.

As such, the outer body is in no way part of the electric circuit, it is only a durable surface through which heat is conducted. Unless of course through your experimentation you accidentally let the nichrome wire touch the stainless steel tube, then you have a potential shock and or equipment damage hazard.

The construction of these heating elements allows them to be bent “relatively” easily. Care should be taken to avoid kinking the tube when bending. Wrapping the tube around a pipe and pulling while bending helps. If it kinks, don’t use it. The kink may cause the electrified nichrome wire to touch the outer stainless steel casing and provide the potential for electric shock and/or equipment damage.

Working with heater elements

Check to see what voltage the heater operates at; most are 220 VAC in the United States.

When you hook up a working burner directly to 220 VAC, it will glow bright red. I’m guessing somewhere around 1000 Farenheit or hotter. If you need something that hot, then simply bend the element into the shape you need making large sweeping bends. Keep the electric terminal ends out into an area that will be no hotter than a few hundred degrees or your terminal ends will not survive long.

If you need a heater at a lower voltage and for safety you want to limit the maximum temperature achieved by the heater, then you can either simply hook heater elements in series with spade connectors to make them effectively longer (heat fuel line from the fuel tank all the way to the fuel injection pump).

If you want a 12 VDC heater that gets up to 250F when the vehicle is idling for instance, you can shorten the heating element and put spade connectors on them to make them operate at temperatures up to the normal operating temperatures for those heaters.

Special Note for those wanting to use this to pre-heat fuel lines. The temperature of a heater on a fuel line will vary significantly based upon the speed the vehicle is running. You might consider mounting the Oven Temperature Controller I mentioned earlier in a weather proof box near the battery to provide active temperature control of your fuel line.

No NOT use aluminum spade terminals; they will become loose and cause the related loose connection problems.

If you need lower temperatures or precise control over temperature, you can use a standard temperature controller. It will modulate the electric power to maintain a specific temperature range near the controllers temperature probe.

You can also use 12 VDC, 24 VDC, or 120 VAC instead of 220 VAC to run the heating elements at lower temperatures in conjunction with a temperature controller.

Or, if you do not want to purchase a temperature controller (>$100), then you can experimentally shorten or lengthen the heating element to get the steady state temperature you want to maintain in the system you are working on.

If you opt for a temperature controller, you can use a hotter heater. This will also provide a margin for operation accuracy in diverse operating situations (ambient temperature drift, differing flow rates, differing compounds, …). There are small Temperature Cutout buttons you can purchase from heating and supply vendors that can provide rough control at a low cost ($15) or if you choose to provided added safety margin as a cutout and/or alarm conditions.

Remember, when designing, remember to anticipate the worst case conditions. For an alternative fuel vehicle it might be: Heater on, car not running, very hot summer day in the direct sunlight, no wind, low humidity. Will the fuel in the fuel line that is being preheated get hot enough to cause problems? Heater on, car running down the road just after starting at 80 mph, freezing cold winter day, 25 mph head wind, relatively high humidity. Will the fuel in the fuel line that is being preheated get hot enough to run the vehicle as expected?

Realize, that in a perfectly insulated box, a heating element of any wattage will heat up and destroy itself. Running a current through an electric wire without any avenue for heat loss will melt the nichrome wire! Heaters rely upon ambient losses to protect themselves. If you are building a project and the heater is in a box without a temperature controller, put a damper on your experimental system to control the temperature.

You can lengthen or shorten the heating element by trial and error to get your desired heating power. Longer heater or lower voltage, lower temperature. If you need more heating capacity at lower temperatures, hook heating elements in parallel and make sure you have good contact with that which you are heating (tubing, heat exchanger, fins, …); a small air gap reduces heat conduction significantly.

Procedure for putting a spade connector on a shortened stove heating element

  • Put on a respirator suitable for working with asbestos, rubber gloves, and eye protection.
  • You simply cut the outer tubing with a tubing cutter.
    • Only cut the minimum necessary to sever the tubing.
    • Do not disturb the nichrome wire in the center.
  • Use a pair of side cutters (dikes) to cut through the nichrome wire and sever the tubing into two parts.
  • Mount the heater in a vise so the tube sticks straight up.
    • Use a hacksaw and cut a one inch slot in the center between the nichrome wire and the edge of the tubing; one inch along the length of the tubing from the end.
    • Fold the smaller flap of tubing back slightly so you can work.
    • Clean out the asbestos so that the spade connector crimp will have room in the tubing after it is crimped onto the nichrome wire.
  • Use a pair of needle nose pliars to pull the end of the nichrome wire out about 1/2 inch.
    • Take a bare zinc clad steel spade connector (no plastic insulation) and crimp it onto the nichrome wire.
  • Slide the neck of the spade connector gently back into the tube.
    • Position the spade connector so it wants to sit in position without having to hold it.
  • Mix up a small amount of High Temperature epoxy.
    • You can buy 500F 5-minute Epoxy from Wal-Mart for about $4
  • Coat the inside of the tube with epoxy.
  • Lay the spade connector within the epoxy so the spade connector des not touch the metal tube
    • axially so the nichrome wire lays straight
    • DO NOT put epoxy directly on the Nichrome wire.
      • this may cause a hot spot and shorten heater life
      • this may cause heating of the epoxy in excess of 500F
  • Coat all around the spade connector and fold back the tubing tab you had folded out earlier.
  • Let harden for about an hour.
  • Repeat this process for the other end.
  • Use an ohm meter to be sure the terminals and nichrome wire are isolated from the metal tubing before energizing.

Make sure the metal tubing near the epoxy does not exceed 400F or this will soften the 500 F epoxy and allow the spade connector to touch the tubing; causing a potential for short circuits, equipment damage, and electrocution. The temperature inside will be hotter than the outside.

Reverse Engineering to Specify Commercial Heaters

You can reverse engineer your heater to estimate the commercial heater specifications for your final product.

Resistance = Volts / Amps = Rref in heater formulas

Watts = Volts * Amps

Don’t forget to add a small margin for degradation over the life of the heater.

What to do with Custom Heaters

  • 12Vdc coffee cup warmer
  • 12 Vdc diesel fuel tank heater
  • 12 Vdc oil pan heater (cold climates)
  • 12 Vdc submersible cup warmer

November 27, 2008

How to Build a Weather Control System (WCS)

~James Dunn

The broader proposal is located at http://blog.360.yahoo.com/jamesbdunn?p=224

Weather Control System and Power Generation


Theory of Operation:

A thin film can be produced in space that is highly reflective on one side with electro-mechanical elements (piezo-electric, muscle wire, nano-tubes…) to control the curvature, or warp, of the mirror on the back side or embedded in the film as it is extruded (addressable MEM loops powered by induction). The mirror needs by necessity to be largely flat, the piezo-electric elements would provide active control to make precise focus possible, and to allow curvatures for various beneficial reasons.

If the mirror is produced with specific material distribution and with a slight convex curvature, the focus can be broadly changed through the rate of rotation. Ionizing radiation and manufacturing defects may mandate that active control of the mirror surface becomes a requirement to provide longer serviceable lifetimes.

Being able to focus the mirror is not needed to control the weather, the mirror could simply act as a shade structure to promote small temperature differentials. However, providing a mirror that can be focused provides a means of harvesting vast amounts of clean solar energy to displace the use of fossil fuels. Each mirror would potentially provide about one megawatt of power per day. Per day because most of the satellites will spend half their life in the shade of the Earth. So on average their day is proportional to our day in terms of energy production.

These mirrors can easily be a kilometer in diameter, or along a side, with only a very small amount of raw material. The mirror curvature should be actively controllable to compensate for varying forces created by solar winds and to allow focusing the mirror precisely. Small motorized weights can be used to control mirror position (see nonlinear 2-degrees of freedom control). By anticipating desired mirror angles the orbital trajectories can be actively calculated to provide a dynamically changing and overlapping mesh of mirror/shade structures to service most areas of the world (see Deep Thunder). The mirror sails its trajectory as the solar winds impart forces upon the mirror and accelerates or decelerates the mirror in an elliptical orbit around the Earth. Through coordinated use of many of these mirrors, the weather of an area can be actively controlled; and with many such groupings, globally.

The mirrors are not geo-synchronous! They orbit and change trajectories through computer coordination. They either position themselves to allow the passage of the Sun’s rays, or like a valve, turn to block the passage of the Sun’s rays and direct the light where needed; perhaps out into space. By having continuously overlapping trajectories, the system of mirrors provides a greying and smoothing effect where small changes spread out along an area so that positive control of weather extremes is maintained, but not noticeably from day to day. Weather would be published in advance like “TV Guide” for television.


Method of Production:

Raw materials from Earth, or harvested in space, are transported to a space-based factory that assembles/deploys/maintains the mirrors. (perhaps in the vicinity of a space elevator)

Stage 1: Centrifugal Mirror Stator

The radiation resistant mirror substrate is created by any number of different processes. For instance, in the vacuum and micro-gravity of space, extruding compounds can be performed very precisely.

A motor turns a hub six feet in diameter at some slow speed (extrusion under centrifugal force). A precision non-stick variable slot is machined continuously around the outside edge of the hub along its radius. A large pipe-like void is created connecting the slot at the edge of the hub, with a rotary joint to supply the mirror substrate compound (all machined on Earth). The heated and/or epoxy mixture of compounds is extruded into the slowly rotating cavity where it is pushed out through the outside precision slot (done in orbit). The centrifugal force pulls the compound out to a growing radius. The liquid compound has a high surface tension and holds together like a soap bubble.

The liquid compound is not conductive but has metal particulate to help shield the control elements on the opposite side of the mirror from ionizing radiation, and to provide electrostatic elements for pushing and pulling on during manufacture.

The rotation rate of the hub decreases as the extruded compound begins to solidify on its journey away from the center of the extrusion hub to limit the centrifugal forces. The temperature and/or hardening agent of the mixture is actively controlled to time the events so that the entire sheet sets up into a solid at the same moment, or at a rate where the inside edge solidifies at a slightly faster rate then the outside edge of the extrusion.

The hub is then disconnected from supply apparatus and the hub is used as the physical structure to house the control/communications package. The thickness of the membrane is thicker near the hub to support the local loading and bending moments. The extrusion slot is made adjustable to actively control the membrane thickness during its extrusion.

The liquid compound supply apparatus is removed from the hub. The mirror membrane is now permanently attached to the center hub. The compound supply apparatus is fitted with another hub and a new mirror substrate begins its manufacturing process.

Stage 2: Electrostatic Force Strain Apparatus (EFSA)

In space there are solar winds to apply forces to the mirror substrate while it is being manufactured. These forces are small but they need to be neutralized to prevent the mirror from having blemishes (wrinkles) in its surface.

The EFSA is laid parallel to the rays of the Sun. The rotating mirror substrate is maneuvered into the center of the EFSA. The EFSA is energized and the rotating mirror substrate is slowed to a stop.

The mirror would normally spin while in operation and the tendency of the mirror would be to flatten out. But during construction, the centrifugal forces would increase the complexity of applying the coatings and control elements.

Two parallel meshes of small ultra fine wires are formed in space in a large diameter; connected at the outer edges by rigid structures. The wires are charged with varying polarities in each opposing array, imparting controllable forces between the wire mesh arrays, and upon the mirror substrate. Through control of differential electrostatic charges, the basic shape of a mirror substrate laying between the mesh arrays can be automatically shaped by pushing and pulling on the mirror substrate surfaces. This allows for working on the mirror without centrifugal forces.

Stressing the wire mesh by differential electrostatic potentials provides an active control mechanism to remove the “wrinkles” of the mirror while applying the coatings and mechanical control elements to the mirror substrate.

Atomized materials are dispersed by electrostatic application, similar to powder coatings. Layered coatings are applied to the control side of the mirror substrate to create the active control elements for focusing the mirror.

A reflective coating is applied onto the reflective side of the mirror substrate.

Piezo-electric compounds (particulate under electromagnetic stress) and conductive pathways are preferentially applied. Metal particles are sprayed to provide the conductive pathways using electrostatic application. Capacitive components, charged networks, and common ground shielding provides piezo force stability in the ionizing radiation environment.

Alternatively, piezo-electric materials or nano-tube muscle wires, and the electrical pathways can be embedded in the mirror substrate as it is being extruded. However, the expansion rates of the liquid substrate must be taken into account.

Alternate Control Scheme:

MEMS technology allows for trillions of small devices to be produced that can be preferentially oriented as they are sprayed onto the mirror substrate. A loop of nanotubes can be addressably controlled from energy collected by induction near adjacent embedded wires. These loops can increase or decrease in diameter whenever the RFID-like device recieves a signal with it’s address. To compare an example, 36 unique addresses uniquely describe coordinates separated every 3 feet in the United States.

.

The control elements allow the active control of the surface of the mirror to provide precision control over the light reflected. In this way, even with imperfections in manufacturing and minor damage from space debris, the majority of the mirror will still function as designed.

The center of the mirror, the hub, is then outfitted with a mechanical control and communications package. A series of criss-crossed wires provide the electrical connections for controlling the piezo-electric manipulation elements. A gasketed pressurized cabin clamps around and through the hub to allow technicians to make the electrical connections and mount control hardware, free of space suits.

A small portion of the mirror is made into a solar array to power the mechanism, or a solar array is attached directly to the control/communication package. The intent is to have thousands of these mirrors, so most likely the mirror will sail its trajectory. Manufacturing thousands of mirrors would be like manufacturing thousands of cars. Mass production techniques makes this practical.

To create a somewhat rigid surface, the mirror may or may not be caused to rotate. Causing a tightening of the surfaces similar to what happens to a string, when slinging a weight on the end of that string in a circular path.

Once set into rotation, mirrors may be coated with different chemicals to cause different frequencies of light to be reflected, or limit the angle of reflection to allow further control of the reflected light and perhaps provide additional protection for the mirror surfaces. Different versions of mirrors would be uniquely designed for certain performance characteristics. For instance:

  • A prizm-like effect is produceable by using various coatings. This might reflect both low and high frequency light away from the Earth, while pouring only the visible spectrum of light onto an area on the Earth.
  • Infrared might be selected specific to providing ground-based solar collection stations with power. The infrared spectrum would allow producing power even in mildly clouded conditions.
  • Perhaps the direct conversion of photons into microwave energy.
    http://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/16111/1/Boechler_Nicholas_S_200705.pdf

Calibration of the mirror is accomplished by precisely positioning lasers stationary to the mirror hub and rotating the mirror. As the laser beam passes over the mirror surface the deviation of the reflection is recorded and the piezo electric (or other control) elements are manipulated to compensate. The mirror is then calibrated for flatness, and specific desired curvatures as anticipated for its anticipated orbital trajectories.

Once deployed, a robotic system can rendevous with mirrors to autonomously check calibration. This is a natural consequence of technology.

Methods of Application:

Additional solar energy higher in the atmosphere may provide for clear skies to allow more radiation from the surface to escape into space; cooling effect.

Mirrors reflect light away from the Earth; cooling effect.

Mirrors illuminate a portion of the Earth; heating effect.

Almost all weather is a function of temperature differentials.


Potential Benefits:

Control of flight related weather windows.

Far less weather related damaged infrastructure here on Earth (almost a trillion dollars saved annually)

This system provides more opportunities for space-based industries to develop.

Global Warming is REVERSED and controlled (all weather controlled).

Produces an abundance of clean energy; more than is presently used on the entire planet; virtually eliminating all human produced greenhouse gas emissions.

Commercial enterprise and space-based industry collaborate while the Government provides ethical oversight.

Emergency rescue resources; rain and retarding winds over forest fires, light during the night for rescue operations, passive reflectors for communication efforts, globally dispersed sensor systems, …


Potential Detractor:

Building the Weather Control System is inexpensive because it has immediate payback potential. However, misuse of the system could permanently damage micro-environments. An Ethical Oversight Committee would need to be put in place to ensure ethical use and implementation of induced weather phenomena.

Of particular importance is that an unstable condition is not created whereby the loss of the mirror system from an extraordinarily large solar flare or asteroid field strikes would cause environment failures on Earth. We must maintain naturally stable environments, and just use the WCS to make minor adjustments to prevent momentary out of control failure of our environments.

If a large volcano erupts, a small asteroid strikes the Earth, or the Earth’s magnetic field flips, we would be able to optimize the weather until the natural balances are restored.

Method of controlling rotation of WCS mirror
~James Dunn

Creating a global Weather Control System (WCS)

There is a need for the Weather Control System (WCS) mirror to control the rate of rotation.

Uses for rotating the mirror might include: increasing mirror rigidity, sliding collected space debris to the edge (dust), creating a flashing beacon to help non-instrumented maritime and sports navigation, …

During the manufacture of the mirror in an extruded process the outside diameter of the mirror may not have a uniform dimension. As the solar winds push against the mirror, there will be a difference in the forces produced across the mirror. If the mirror is rotating, the forces are averaged over time to have a uniform effect upon the mirror.

The mirror is dynamically focusable. So the control elements can cause the mirror surface to undulate similar to waves. By positioning the mirror at some angle from the Sun to allow one side of the mirror to recieve more solar wind than the other, the mirror will rotate.

Also, the control elements can dynamically manipulate surfaces to disproportionally make surfaces more perpendicular to the solar wind and cause rotation.

The warping of the mirror provides the differential forces necessary to position the sail area of the mirror for maneuvering in space.